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Use Cases

Use Cases. CS/SWE 421 Introduction to Software Engineering Dan Fleck (Slides adapted from Dr. Stephen Clyde with permission). Introduction. Use Case : “... a typical interaction between a user and a computer system”, Booch

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Use Cases

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  1. Use Cases CS/SWE 421 Introduction to Software Engineering Dan Fleck (Slides adapted from Dr. Stephen Clyde with permission) Coming up: Introduction

  2. Introduction • Use Case: “... a typical interaction between a user and a computer system”, Booch • Here, “user” is anything that needs or invokes the functionality of the system • “Computer system” is the system being modeled • Use cases can capture and document the user-visible functionality of a system • Use cases capture how the system will benefit the user • Each use case achieves a discrete goal for the user Coming up: Example Use Case Diagram

  3. Example Use Case Diagram Coming up: Goals

  4. Goals • Use cases help everyone come to a common understanding of what the system should do • Developers • End-users • Domain Experts • Use-cases are a communication tool for the design (not the implementation) • Use cases represent a functional requirement of your system (as a whole) Coming up: Use Case Diagrams

  5. Use Case Diagrams • Use Case Diagrams provide a visual way to document user goals and explore possible functionality • Three primary modeling components: • Actors • Use Cases • Relationships between use cases Record class grades Review Transcripts Teacher Student Authorized Staff Worker Coming up: Actors

  6. Actors • Actors are things outside the system that need to interact with the system • Actors carry out use cases • Actors are represented as stick figures • Although users are actors, not all actors are users • Actors can be external software systems • External hardware (sensors, actuators, etc.) • Actors can be people that need the functionality of the system, but may not be the ones who actually invoke the software commands Coming up: Hints for Finding Actors

  7. Hints for Finding Actors • Who or what will use the main functionality of the system? • Who or what will provide input to this system? • Who or what will use output from this system? • Who will need support from the system to do their work? • Are there any other software systems with which this one needs to interact • Are there any hardware devices used or controlled by this system? Coming up: Hints for Modeling Actors

  8. Hints for Modeling Actors • An actor can be a role that a user plays with respect to the system • A single person may play different roles • A single actor may perform many use cases • A use case may be performed by many actors • Show external systems as actors only when they are the ones who need a use case Coming up: Relationships Between Actors

  9. Relationships Between Actors • Actors cam be related by generalization/specialization • Actors are classifiers (not individual users) Student Do this when very obvious Graduate Student Coming up: Use Cases

  10. Use Cases • Each use case represents something the user needs to do with the system – a goal • A use cases is given a short name and textual description • Use cases can be large or small from a conceptual perspective • Use cases can relate to each other via dependencies, such as • <<extends>> • <<includes>> • Generalization or <<refines>> (“is a”) Coming up: Use Case Relationships

  11. Use Case Relationships Includes Extends Generalization After a while you realize extends and generalization are not too different. Just know generalization and includes… forget about extends (the difference is only in intent) Coming up: Use-Case Relationships

  12. Use-Case Relationships • Includes Dependency: Defines how one use case can invoke behavior defined by another use case Alter Student Grade <<includes>> Record Grades for a Section Teacher Coming up: Use-Case Relationships

  13. Use-Case Relationships • Extends dependency: defines a use-case that is a variation of another, usually for handling an abnormal situation Alter Student Grade <<extends>> Alter student grade for a class taken more than a year ago Authorized Staff Worker Coming up: Use-Case Relations

  14. Use-Case Relations • Generalization: Defines one use case as a generalization of another. Alter Student Grade Alter Student Grade for a Graduate Course Teacher Coming up: Hints for Finding Use Cases

  15. Hints for Finding Use Cases • Try listing actors first and then look at the activities each needs to perform and then try to express the goal that represent these activities • although this will uncover many valuable use cases, it will not find them all • Try listing external events and then look at what the system needs to do in response to each one. • This technique will find some additional use cases, but not all • Be patient, allow the use cases to unfold • Don’t over do it – Use Case Diagram should be broad-brush characterizations of user goals Coming up: Hints for Modeling Use Cases

  16. Hints for Modeling Use Cases • Establish the context of a user goal by identifying the actors • For each actor, consider the behavior that it expects or requires the system to provide • Name these common behaviors as use cases • Factor common behavior into new use cases • Relate the use cases using the extend, includes, and refines dependencies • Adorn uses cases with notes Coming up: Benefits of Use Cases

  17. Benefits of Use Cases • Use cases diagrams capture user-visible functions • Identifying actors help capture who needs the system functionality • Relationships between use cases document opportunities for reuse • Use cases provide a basis planning and scheduling incremental development • Use cases can provide a basis for system testing Coming up: In Class Exercise

  18. In Class Exercise • Lets create a use case diagram for • iPod • Television set • Elevator • ATM • Online Scrabble game • Word Processor Coming up: Use cases for CS421

  19. Use cases for CS421 Show system boundary Show Actors outside boundary Use extend, include, generalization/specialization where appropriate Typically one diagram for your project is sufficient Coming up: Use cases for CS421

  20. Use cases for CS421 Show system boundary (Warning: skip this if not supported by the tool – like Netbeans!) Coming up: Use cases for CS421

  21. Use cases for CS421 • For each use-case (oval) in your diagram include the use-description text described in the slide for Chapter 5, titled: • Use Case Description • about slide #14 Coming up: Questions

  22. Questions • Who might be interested in reviewing or using use case diagrams? • When in the development life cycle should we employ use cases? • What do use cases have to do with object-orientation? • What level of use-case granularity is best? • How many use cases are enough? • Can other modeling activities help in discovering use cases? • When in the development life cycle do we stop referring to or refining the use cases? • What should the text description of use case contain? Coming up:

  23. Backup Slides • The following slides were removed over time. Coming up: Extends vs. Includes vs. Generalization

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