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Audio and Visual Technologies

Audio and Visual Technologies

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Audio and Visual Technologies

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  1. Audio and Visual Technologies Teaching and Learning with Technology Chapter 9 Allyn and Bacon 2002

  2. Audio in Teaching and Learning • Listening includes both hearing and comprehending audio • Effective listening for learning includes • Accurate hearing • Focused listening • Reinforcement to stimulate neural connections Allyn and Bacon 2002

  3. Traditional Audio Media Audio Cassette • Economic, durable, and easy-to-use • Uses magnetic tape to record voice, music, and other sounds • Can be used in centers, small groups, or large group instruction to add audio elements • May be used for talking books, multimedia kits, oral histories and journals Allyn and Bacon 2002

  4. Traditional Audio Media Broadcast Audio • Received via radio or cable audio channels • Enhances content with current events, music, and foreign language Telephone • May be used to bring speakers in via phone • Can also be used to include home-bound students in class activities Allyn and Bacon 2002

  5. Digital Audio Media Optical Media (CD-ROMs) • Offer better clarity and greater storage capacity when compared with traditional audio media • Easier to directly access target audio for replay • With CD-Rs and CD-RWs you can also record audio Allyn and Bacon 2002

  6. Digital Audio Media Internet Audio • You can download audio rather than acquire CDs • While audio clips in Wav and MP3 formats are widely available, MP3 is gaining popularity because it require smaller files • You will need media players (typically free) to play back these files Allyn and Bacon 2002

  7. Digital Audio Media MP3 Files • Sometime include visualizations (graphics or video) displayed during audio playback • MP3 players usually include recording and playback controls to enhance quality and control sequences • Typically music but may also include any other audio elements Allyn and Bacon 2002

  8. Digital Audio Media Internet Radio • Using streaming media, many radio stations simultaneously broadcast via the Web as well as the airwaves • National and international stations outside the local area are now available via the Web • Include music, news and talk stations from around the world Allyn and Bacon 2002

  9. Visual Communication • Visual literacy is the ability to correctly interpret visual signals • Visual experiences in education should be designed to encourage visual literacy • Awareness of effective visual design helps to impart visual literacy skills to students Allyn and Bacon 2002

  10. Visual Communication Visual Design Basics • Visual design includes text, visual elements, and affective elements • Text refers to all aspects of text including fonts, spacing, color, and sizes • Visual elements include graphics, symbols, real objects, and organizational elements • Affective elements are visual components that can elicit responses from viewers Allyn and Bacon 2002

  11. Visual Communication Visual Design Guidelines • Relevance • All elements should add clarity to the visual • Graphics should accurately illustrate the intended concept • Coherence and Consistency • Include only those elements that support the message • All elements should be consistent with each other and with the message Allyn and Bacon 2002

  12. Visual Communication Visual Design Guidelines • Proportion and Contrast • Proportion refers to relative size of elements • Contrast refers to the arrangement and balance of the various elements • Use proportion and contrast to draw attention to the most significant aspects of the message • Unity and Direction • Elements must work together to communicate the focus of the message and then to direct the viewer to subsequent components Allyn and Bacon 2002

  13. Traditional Visual Media Non-Projected Visuals • Real objects include all objects that can be brought into the classroom and used as a visual enhancement • Models are 3-D representations of real objects or concepts • Exhibits are displays or dioramas that are created or arranged to illustrate instructional concepts Allyn and Bacon 2002

  14. Non-Projected Visuals Print Materials include commercial and teacher-made paper materials Graphics and Photos are pictorial images used to illustrate and clarify Technologies for Non-Projected visuals include Traditional Visual Media • Chalk Boards • White Boards • Electronic White Boards • Bulletin Boards • Flip Charts • Magnetic Boards Allyn and Bacon 2002

  15. Projected Visuals and their Technologies Overhead Projectors Shine light through transparencies for large group projection of the images Transparencies can be drawn or printed with ink jet or laser printers – the right transparency film must be used with each Commercial transparencies are frequently available with texts or in supplemental books Transparencies can also be created with common software such as word processors Traditional Visual Media Allyn and Bacon 2002

  16. Projected Visuals and their Technologies Slide Projectors Slides are small film images mounted in cardboard which are typically organized in trays Photographic slides remain popular because they offer the most accurate, high resolution color images Slides require limited equipment for projection but may deteriorate with age Traditional Visual Media Allyn and Bacon 2002

  17. Digital Projectors Used to project digital images from computers, digital cameras, and photo CDs Allow for large group display of anything digital Document Cameras Video camera mounted on a stand to capture and display live video images May use monitor or digital projector for display Can be use to zoom in on a real time demonstration or to share images of small objects Non-traditional Visual Media Allyn and Bacon 2002

  18. Combining multiple media into a single integrated whole Multimedia includes audio and visual elements typically stored on a CD-ROM with hyperlinks between the elements Multimedia must be carefully evaluated for good design and appropriate and meaningful audio and visual elements Multimedia Allyn and Bacon 2002