1 / 55

The New Nation

The New Nation. Dr. Kathryn H. Braund Auburn University Summer Academy 2006. 3 Areas of Discussion. Debate over the adoption of the Constitution The establishment of the government Efforts to foster a new “national” identity. Focus Areas. Web Resources Content based web sites

Télécharger la présentation

The New Nation

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.


Presentation Transcript

  1. The New Nation Dr. Kathryn H. Braund Auburn University Summer Academy 2006

  2. 3 Areas of Discussion • Debate over the adoption of the Constitution • The establishment of the government • Efforts to foster a new “national” identity

  3. Focus Areas • Web Resources • Content based web sites • Primary sources on-line • Use of Primary Sources • Dissecting a document • Making History Relevant • The more things change….

  4. Why Primary Documents? • Prompt students to ask questions • Encourage students to acknowledge various points of view • Allow students to discover evidence • Allow students to see cause-and-effect relationships • Encourage students to compare and contrast

  5. Primary Documents. . . • Help students understand continuity and change over time. • Force students to consider and recognize bias • Drive students to determine the validity and reliability of sources • Enable students to realize the impt. of referencing multiple sources of information

  6. The War of the Revolution • Overthrew monarchy • Created a republic • Republic: gov’t by elected representatives • Fear democracy = “tyranny of the mob” • Actually: 14 new governments!

  7. New Governments • Guiding Principles • Ideas of the Enlightenment (Montesquieu) • Separation of Powers • “Balanced Government”

  8. New Governments • Guiding Principles • British legacy • British common law • civil liberties • trial by jury • subordination of military to civilian power • restrictions on search warrants • freedom of speech & press

  9. New Governments • Guiding Principles • Colonial experience • Written charters • as opposed to unwritten British constitution • defined structure and powers of government • Legislation • Establishment of precedent via practice

  10. 1775-1776 • Royal governors flee rebels • New states called conventions to establish new “constitutions” or fundamental law • Authority of Government: from the “people”

  11. New State Governments • Great variety • one vs. two house legislatures • various requirements for voters • One common principle • Separation of powers • Governor can’t dissolve an assembly • Independent judiciary • Lower house more powerful than upper house

  12. New State Governments • Common Trend • increased participation by “lower orders” • loosening of property qualifications for voting • idea that the elected representatives represent the voters

  13. Continental Congres • Central government • no formal authority but acted as the “central gov’t” • declared independence • encouraged states to write constitutions • est. foreign relations committees • created continental army, navy • printed money

  14. Articles of Confederation • Drawn up in fall 1777; adopted 1781 • Weak central government • no power to tax internally • each state has one vote (regardless of size or population)

  15. Why so long? • Troubles over western land • “landless” states fear potential power of “landed” states with no western boundaries • Solution • “Landed” states cede western lands (Ohio Valle) to the central government

  16. Confederation Successes • Laid foundation for a unified, federal government • Established a federal bureaucracy • Managed to finance the war • Est. a national land policy • Northwest Ordinance of 1787

  17. The Northwest Territory

  18. Northwest Ordinance • Create 3-5 states (Ohio R. to Great Lakes) • New states equal (not colonies) • specific process for est. of gov’t as population grew • No slavery • Freedom of religion

  19. Northwest Ordinance • Blueprint for the Expansion of the United States • Best ideas of the Revolutionary era • republican government • rights of citizens • religious toleration • no slavery

  20. Northwest Ordinance • Blueprint for the Expansion of the United States • Worst aspects of the Revolutionary Era • Dispossession of Indian tribes who own the land

  21. Despite some success. . . • Confederation Gov’t “weak” • No power to raise money to pay debts • Can’t deal with post-war economic crisis • Shay’s Rebellion in Mass. • Fear of “mob rule” • Fear of European powers • British hold posts; Spain closes Miss. R.; European markets closed

  22. Plan emerges…. • Strengthen central government • create balance of power btn. state and central government • provide central government with adequate powers • idea: revise Articles

  23. Constitutional Convention • Called to order in late May • Conducted in secret (why?) • Voting • each state gets one vote • majority required for adoption of a measure (compare with unanimous vote under Articles)

  24. Important Issues • Relationship between states and federal government • Mixed system • John Dickinson: “the one, the few, the many” (federal, states, the people) • The people: actually represented at federal level (not just the states)

  25. Important Issues • Separation of Powers • 3 branches of government (not merely one) • further division of powers in legislative branch • checks and balances • protection of rights (large vs. small states)

  26. Theoretical Framework • “the one, the few and the many” • Connecticut (Great )Compromise • Two house legislature • House (People) • Money bills • Senate (States)

  27. Two Other Significant Compromises • How to Elect the Executive • Electoral College • satisfied people, state legislatures, federal House • How to Ascertain Population for Purposes of Representation/Taxation • Slavery swept under the rug: 3/5 Compromise

  28. Style Matters! • Committee of Style • Gouverneur Morris • Change in Preamble • Signal change in views of power • “We the People” • Little noticed

  29. Problem • No Specific “Bill of Rights” • Americans fear: • powerful executive • concentration of power in federal gov’t • weakening of states

  30. Constitution: Resources • National Archives • “A More Perfect Union: The Creation of the U.S. Constitution” (essay) • “The Founding Fathers: Delegates to the Constitutional Convention” (essay) • The Constitution (document) • Bill of Rights (document) • FAQs (Q & A)

  31. Constitution: Resources • Library of Congress: American Memory • Timeline • Brief Overview • Lesson Plans • National Archives • NARA Digital Classroom • Constitution Day Ideas

  32. Writing is one thing. . . • Once “signed” at the convention, it went to the states for ratification

  33. The Ratification Debate • Pro: Strong government would. . . • preserve U.S. from foreign threats & internal conflict • protect rights of citizens • Con: Strong government would. . . • trample the rights of citizens • destroy the states

  34. Bernstein essay • Launched shared political discourse • Created a national political community • Created political component to national identity • Resource: The Federalist Papers

  35. Ratification • What were the issues? • The Ratification Project • Slavery Model Edition

  36. Analyzing a Written Document • How do you use primary source documents in the classroom? • Ideas from the NARA

  37. Analyzing a Written Document • 1. Describe the document. Is this a letter, a will, a bill of sale or some other kind of document? • 2. What does the document describe/relate/report? (give a brief summary) • 3. What is the date of the document? Is there more than one date? Why?

  38. Analyzing a Written Document • 4. Who is the author of the document? Do you believe that the author of this document is credible? Is this document written as a requirement of the author's occupation or is this a personal document? • 5. For what audience was this document written? Why was it written? • 6. List three (3) points that the author made that you believe are important.

  39. Analyzing a Written Document • 7. Can you discern the writer's point of view? How does the author interpret the facts presented? Does the writer's POV effect the way in which the facts are presented? • 8. What can you learn about the _________ from the document. • 9. Write one (1) question to the author that is unanswered by the document.

  40. Using Primary Sources • Analysis Worksheets from the NARA • Artifacts • Cartoons • Documents • Maps • Photographs • Posters • Sound

  41. The New Government • The First Federal Congress Project • Mini-Edition • Web Site

  42. A New People Establishing an American Identity

  43. Identity: A Shared Past • Heroes: Symbols of New Nation • Commemoration • Art • Public celebrations • Books, etc. Emmanuel Leutze, Crossing the Delaware

  44. Identity: A Shared Past • Commemoration of Heroes • Celebration of Public “Virtue” John Trumbull, George Washington Resigns his Commission

  45. Identity: A Shared Past • Commemoration of Heroes • Ideal of Sacrifice for Public “Good” John Trumbull, TheDeath of General Warren at the Battle of Bunker Hill

  46. Identity: A Shared Past • Commemoration of Heroes • Military success John Trumbull, Surrender of General Burgoyne

  47. American National Identity • Naming the country: transform the land to “American” land (from Indian land) • Lexington, Kentucky • Washington, D. C. • Montgomery, Alabama

  48. American National Identity New Literature • Noah Webster, American Spelling Book • Jedediah Morse, American Gazetteer • William Bartram, Travels

  49. American National Identity • Art • John Trumbull • Charles Wilson Peale • Gilbert Stuart • Ezra Ames (portrait of Gouverneur Morris)

  50. American National Identity • Architecture • Classical (as opposed to Georgian)

More Related