My Brother Martin by Christine King Farris illustrated by Chris Soentpiet Compiled by: Terry Sams PES Melissa Guinn PES
Study Skills • Genre: Biography • Comprehension Skill: Cause and Effect • Comprehension Strategy: Answer Questions • Comprehension Review Skill: Fact and Opinion • Vocabulary: Word Structure—Endings
Summary Few people know about what Martin Luther King, Jr. was like as a child. His older sister, Christine, tells stories of their childhood, full of love and fun. She remembers when her little brother “M.L.” told their mother, “One day, I am going to turn this world upside down.”
Genre: Biography A biography is the story of a real person’s life as told be someone else. In this biography, a sister shares childhood memories of her younger brother. Why do you think she chose to tell about these experiences?
Comprehension SkillCause and Effect • The effect is what happens. • The cause is why it happens. • Clue words such as because, so, therefore, and as a result can signal causes and effects. • Sometimes one effect becomes the cause of another effect, which causes another, and so on. This is called a chain of events.
Practice Cause and Effect PB 253 • Cause • Jack’s textbooks are old and damaged. • Effect Cause • Jack’s mother complains to the principal, who cannot help. • Effect Cause • She visits a lawyer, and he files a lawsuit for her.
Practice Cause and Effect PB 253 • Effect • A judge decides in Jack’s favor. • When do you think this fictional story takes place? Use the information from the text and your prior knowledge to answer the question. • The story probably takes place in the early days of the Civil Rights Movement.
Comprehension StrategyAnswer Questions • Good readers can answer questions about what they read. • Sometimes the answer to a question will be in one place in the text and sometimes it will be in several places. • Sometimes you must combine what you read with what you already know.
Comprehension Review Skill- Fact or Opinion • A fact is a statement that can be proven either true or false. • An opinion is a statement based on someone’s judgment, belief, or wayofthinking.
Vocabulary Skill:Word Structure—Endings • Sometimes the ending –ed or –ing is added to a verb or the ending –s is added to a noun. • If a word with one of these endings seems hard for you, try the following:
Vocabulary Skill:Word Structure—Endings • Cover the ending and identify the base form of the verb or noun. • Do you know this word? If you do, think about its meaning. Picture the action the verb describes. • If you do not, check the words around the word. Try to find clues that can help you figure out the meaning. • Check to see if the meaning makes sense in the sentence.
Grammar Skill – Conjunctions TE 659e • Conjunctions are connecting words such as and, but and or. They can be used to join words, phrases, or sentences. • Use and to add information, or to join related ideas: They played soccer and tag.
Grammar Skill – Conjunctions TE 659e • Use but to join different ideas: Some people were kind, but others were mean. • Use or to suggest a choice: We can fight, or we can get along.
Research Skill Note TakingTE 659L • As you read, take notes to help you understand and remember the text. • Notes should be brief and focus on the most important information. Use keywords, phrases, or short sentences. • Paraphrase, or restate, someone’s idea using your own words.
Research Skill Note TakingTE 659L • Synthesize, or combine, information from different parts of the text or from tow or more texts. Look for ideas that go together. Add your own thoughts. • Record findings in an organized way, such as a graphic organizer, a summary, or an outline. Include information about sources you read.
Research Skill Note TakingWB 259-260 • How is this article organized? chronologically • Paraphrase the first sentence in the article. Both Cesar Chavez and Dr. King understood the value of equal rights. • Why is it important to take note of the fact that Chavez was a migrant worker? It led him to do the work he did as an a adult fighting for civil rights. • Is the detail about Chavez joining the U.S. Navy important enough to include in your notes? Why or why not? No, because the article doesn’t focus on what he did in the navy.
Research Skill Note TakingWB 259-260 • What did Chavez do with the Community Service Organization? He spoke out against discrimination and encouraged voting. • What methods of peaceful protest did Chavez use? strikes, fasts, urging people to stop buying certain products • Why is it important to write down only the most important ideas when note-taking? If I wrote down every idea and every detail, I wouldn’t be able to focus on the author’s main ideas.
Research Skill Note TakingWB 259-260 • When taking notes for a report, it is important to write down the title and author of the book or article you are reading. Why do you need to do this? I might need to go back to what I was reading to check for more information. • Describe a graphic organizer you might use to organize your notes. I would draw a web. I would put Cesar Chavez in a center circle and write important details about his life in surrounding circles. • Copy a section of your notes from the article in the lines below. born in 1927, Arizona; worked as migrant farmer; fought for rights of Latinos
Weekly Fluency Check -Phrasing TE 659a • Read aloud “A Class of One”. Explain that you will group words that make sense together. • Partners read aloud p. 651, paragraph 1, three times. Group words into meaningful phrases. Give each other feedback.
Fun Stuff and Practice • Review Cause and Effect • Cause and Effect Introduction • Conjunctions • Fact and Opinion Introduction • Fact and Opinion Review • Fact and Opinion Game • Martin Luther King PowerPoint • Time Line • Good Sentence Review PowerPoint
Question of the WeekTE 638m • How can words change people’s lives?
Day 2 - Question of the Day • What new or surprising information about Martin Luther King, Jr. does this biography give?
Day 3 - Question of the Day • How do Martin Luther King, Jr. s’ experiences show the power or words to change the world?
Day 4 - Question of the Day - Review Why do you think poems by young people were paired with the biography of Martin Luther King, Jr.?
Review Questions • What is an opinion about Martin’s father? • What is the main idea of the selection? • Is it a fact or an opinion that the King children played with two white boys? • How were the King’s children and the two white boys alike? • What was the result of the King’s losing their friends?
Review Questions 6. Why did Martin Luther King, Jr. tell his mother that he would “one day (…) turn the world upside down?” 7. What did M.L. and his father have in common? 8. Why did the father refuse to buy shoes from a store owner? 9. What does the sentence, “These stories were as nourishing as the food that was set before us,” mean?
Review Questions 10. What was M.L. ‘s dream? 11. Why did the author write the story? 12. How does the picture on page 654 show the difference that M.L. made?
Vocabulary - Say It • ancestors • avoided • generations • minister numerous pulpit shielding
More Words to Know confronted injustice nourishing demonstrating integrate sympathy
ancestors people from whom you are descended, such as your great-grandparents
avoided kept away from; kept out of the way of
generations periods of about thirty years, or the time from the birth of one generation to the birth of the next generation
numerous very many
pulpit platform or raised structure in a church from which the minister preaches
shielding protecting; defending
confronted faced boldly, opposed
injustice lack of justice, fairness, lawfulness
nourishing keep well-fed and healthy; producing health and growth
demonstrating taking part in a parade or meeting to protest or to make demands
integrate to make public places available to people or all races on an equal basis
sympathy agreement; approval; favor
Slaves lived without freedom for many generations.
In the 1960s, schools were forced to integrate public schools. Norman Rockwell’s “The Problem We All Live With”