Gender in Value Chain Analysis: Macro, Meso andMicro levels Ephrem Tesema( PhD) Social Anthropologist and LIVES Gender Expert, Presented at Gender in Value Chain Training Workshop for LIVES Project Staff, August 19-22,2013, Adama, Ethiopia, Rift Valley Hotel,
Outline • Value Chain Analysis with a gender lens • Data Collection at Macro, Meso and Micro Levels • Gender Sensitive Value Chain Mapping • Analyzing Gender Sensitive Value Chain Mapping • Analyzing Gender Based Constraints • Concluding Remarks
Value Chain Analysis with a gender lens • Use gender-based Constraints tools to: • Distinguish areas of gender inequalities relevant to the efficient operation of the VCs • Identify inequalities and the subsequent Factors • Formulate actions to build a VC with equal gender opportunities • Diagnose the possible Socio-economic realities that affect gender relations across value chain nodes Points of Emphasis: The Value chain governance is the most important arena in terms of securing equal benefits
VC Mapping at Macro, Meso and Micro Levels • The Preliminary Mapping shed light on • Institutions, Organizations and Individual actors involved in a VC • Level of Awareness on gender Equality Issues • The Ones who advocates on Gender inequality issues • Interaction and linkage among them • Actors with the potential to bring impact on gender equality • Financial and technical resources committed for gender equality
Gender Sensitive Value Chain Mapping • Macro Level Analysis • Cultural Setting/Dynamics • Regulations and Legislations • Meso Level Analysis • Gender Sensitivity of specific Local Structures • Focuses on Institutions and Structures and their delivery system • Investigate if they reflect gender equality principles in their structure, culture, in the service they provide ( Producers group, BDS etc.
Gender Sensitive Value Chain Mapping Contin’d • Micro Level Analysis • Identifies major Constraints faced by women at the HH level • It shows the repercussion of the constraints on the meso and macro level specific to achievements and chain governance Example IFPRI/ILRI Mapping of Assets within the HH • Natural • Physical • Financial • Human • Social • Political
Analyzing Gender Based Constraints in A project Context • Steps in Gender Sensitive VC Mapping Process: • Step I: Mapping Gender Roles & Relationships along the commodity/ Value Chain -Step II: From Gender Inequality to Constraints • Step III: Assessing the Consequences of the Constraints • Step IV: Taking/Recommending Actions • Step V: Measuring Outcomes of the Actions
Integrating Gender in Agricultural VC Source: Adopted from Gender Equitable Opportunities in Agricultural Value Chains, USAID, 2010
Food for Thought Evening Exercise (10-15 for Each Commodity VC) • Take one Commodity and map Gender roles/relations, identify constraints, assess the gender Consequences, Proposes mitigation/actions and state hypothetical Outcomes expected from the proposed action • Put your findings in One Flip Chart and Post on the Wall in the morning for exhibition and to get comment from other team members
Implication for VC Research for Development Work • To enhance gender roles in value chain nodes and Chain governance of high value Livestock commodities and Irrigated Crops • To enhance gender sensitive knowledge management and capacity building interventions in high value Livestock commodities and irrigated crops • To ensure gender sensitive approaches' use by LIVES’s research and development partners and value chain actors and chain supporters
Thanks: The World is a Market Place; Then bargain in it! Sebeta Cattle Market, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, April, 2013, Photo by Ephrem Tesema
Presentation I:Rational for Gender Mainstreaming in Livestock andIrrigation Value Chain Research and Development The Activist, The Catalyst and Apathetic?!
Outline • Why Gender Matter in Livestock and Irrigated Value Chains R&D Interventions • Facts and Figures: They Google at You!! • Inclusive Development, Social Justice and Effectiveness: Areas that nag your concise • Projects Objective/Outcomes: Sound(s) centrifugal/ final resort to make matters …. • Concluding Remarks
Why Gender Matter in Livestock and Irrigated Value Chains R&D Interventions • Many millions of women and men Depend on the Agricultural Sector (livestock and irrigated Crop) • Both Sexes Contribute for the growth and advancement of the agricultural sector • There are indispensable complementarity of male and female smallholder in value addition and efficiency • They pay costs in terms of health and wellbeing mostly disproportionately • Most nutrition related successes depend on the level of gender empowerment in the household • Value addition of products for the market depends on gender balanced decision making in the HH.
Gender in Smallholding livestock Value Chains Assumptions about men and women in the livestock Sector • Contribute for gene flows and domestic animal diversity • Hold knowledge useful for prevention and treatment of livestock illness (ethno- Veterinary) • Differ in putting criteria for breed selection • Have different livestock knowledge and skills depending on their roles and responsibilities-boys and girls included • Differ in reasoning for keeping certain types of livestock Therefore: Mainstreaming gender in livestock initiatives means addressing the perceived needs and interests of men, women, boys and girls
Facts and Figures: They Google at You!! • 752 m people in the world keep livestock of which about 50% are women • 2/3 of poor livestock keepers (400m) are women mainly poultry, sheep and goat • Milk and processing is mainly run by women and to some extent children • 43% of labour contribution in the agricultural Sector in some countries is from women • Mostly women and children get affected by Zoonotic disease, Bilharzia in Irrigated areas) • 70% of food producers in the family are women
Facts and Figures Contin’d • Gender disempowerment at HH level demure the possibility of effectiveness along the VC ( Verbal communication with female agricultural Extension agent in IPMS PLW,2007) Therefore, What we are going to do to change this? Emphasize on the following : • Access to and control over natural/productive resources ( Land, Water) • The implication of distribution of roles and responsibilities based on sex and age • Access to Technologies, training and Extension Services
Therefore, What we are going to do to change…? • Access to Financial Services • Access to markets • Space for participation & decision making in the HH, Community and Enterprise level • Occupational health and safety • Investment both in gender practical and strategic needs • Ensure gendered responsive accountability at different levels
Breaking the Gender Bias and Strike the Balance • Inclusive Development, Social Justice and Effectiveness: Areas that nag your concise • Taking your share of the problem as most of the gender constraints are emanated from biases • They could change over time, not permanent natural phenomena and not biological
Projects Objective/Outcomes: Sound(s) centrifugal/ final resort to make matters …. A Gender Lens in commodity/ Enterprise Development • Commodities and value chain nodes traditionally dominated by women • Commodities and value chain nodes conventionally involve men and women • Commodities and value chain nodes conventionally dominated by men only.
Directives for Successful Gender Sensitive Interventions in LIVES • Set specific Gender targets for LIVES Intervention that captures the imagination of staff and partners and facilitate support for its successful achievements. • Learn from and share the experience of successful gender sensitive VC Governance • Present evidence and facts to raise the awareness of project partners regarding the Importance of gender in value chain development initiative. Do not preach!! • Prepare a gender action plan and scan the plan and all project activities with gender lens, share with partners and project staff
Directives Contin’d • Learn and share gender analytical tools and approaches for successful delivery • Work in partnership with the respective Women’s Affair Offices and other gender sensitive public and private service delivery organizations • Understanding the gender context of the priority commodity/ value chains through diagnostic process and by making continues follow up studies • Collecting and analyzing site and priority value chain specific information on gender differences in division of labor in producing and marketing priority commodities
Directives Contin’d • Identify the extent of access to and control over resources and benefits accrued to men and women from specific commodities and value chain nodes • gender participation in decision making capacity needs to be engaged in priority commodity value chain development • Developing strategies to address gender issues in commodity chains with partners • Identifying opportunities and implementing strategies to enable women and men to have equal opportunities in the project activities • Identifying constraints and opportunities for women’s participation in the selected value chains
Possible Areas of Interventions • Targeting women from female‐headed households who have land for vegetable production • Targeting women to engage in input supply systems like fruit tree nurseries, pullet production, feed block preparation • Involving women and women groups in value addition/processing (e.g. juice and honey processing) • Giving more focus and support to women in women‐dominated enterprises (e.g. dairy, Small ruminants and poultry)
Possible Areas Cont’d • Adapting enterprises to more effectively engage and increase benefits to women, e.g., honey production in modern beehives • Supporting women to identify and develop joint enterprises like small ruminant fattening • Facilitate linkage to micro-finance institutions and other financial sources to enhance access to credit and market linkages for women to better Increase the participation of women in value chain development • Evaluating these approaches to understand which strategies work, where and under what conditions
Possible Areas Contin’d • Using participatory technology adoption and evaluation approaches that enhance women’s participation such as farmer participatory research • Involve women in special and regular Field days to demonstrate and scaling up Successful Out Comes • Create Space for them in the Knowledge Centers, in ICT based information delivery and in activities to be carried at FTC levels • Evaluate the way extension services are rendered to both men and women farmers, Mainly the facilitation skills of development agents, including our own • Engaging women water‐users’ associations to increase access to irrigation technologies and enhance decision making role in tapping the resources
Learning and Sharing: Knowledge Dissemination and Capacity Enhancement by innovative Female Farmer In Ada’a District Oromia W/roElfineshBermeji, a female smallholder in Ada’a district in Oromia, share her experiences on backyard beekeeping for AGP trainees, Photoby Ephrem Tesema, November 18, 2011