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EOH3202 Occupational Health

EOH3202 Occupational Health

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EOH3202 Occupational Health

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  1. EOH3202 Occupational Health Dr. Emilia Zainal Abidin, PhD or (response time < 24 hours) Office: 03 8947 2643 13 April 2014 PJJ Bac Sc. Human Resource Dev2nd Semester 2nd Meeting

  2. Were there any problems we need to discuss? • Module – everyone has a copy? • Other reference books – Kesihatan di TempatKerja • Assignments OK? Emilia Zainal Abidin

  3. Questions on Individual Assignment 1? • Describe the 4 objectives of the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 Malaysia. • Compare and describe the differences between the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 and the Factory and Machinery Act 1967. • Use and Standard of Exposure to Chemicals Hazardous to Health Regulations 2000 requires workers being exposed to solvents to undergo medical surveillance at regular intervals. True/False • What are the main functions of Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Malaysia? • Please explain particle size fractions of dust. • Please explain the aerodynamic behavior of particles in airstream and particle deposition in human lung system. Emilia ZainalAbidin

  4. Questions on Individual Assignment 1? • Explain the noise regulation being used in Malaysia. • Please describe the steps to control dust exposure in a construction site. • Please explain the roles of professionals in the field of occupational health. • Define the term ergonomic hazard. • List four acts that are enforced by the Ministry of Human Resources Malaysia. • Define radiation. Discuss two types of radiation by giving appropriate examples. • Alpha radiation cannot travel far through air. How far does it go? What material will absorb alpha radiation? State two safety precautions for handling radioactive sources. • Discuss how Malaysian workers are compensated for occupational injuries. • Explain 3 major incidents which occurred globally and in Malaysia that lead to the establishment of the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994. Emilia Zainal Abidin

  5. Questions on Individual Assignment 2? • Identify the impact of sickness absence to the employee and employer. • Explain the mechanism by which organophosphate poisoning occurs. Include 2 diagrams to describe normal muscle function and muscle function with neurotoxic agent. • Give the steps in control and management of pesticide exposure in a paddy farming agricultural setting. • Pesticides are categorised into different groups. Explain the classification of pesticides. • Use and Standard of Exposure to Chemicals Hazardous to Health Regulations 2000 requires workers being exposed to pesticides to undergo medical surveillance at regular intervals. True/False Emilia Zainal Abidin

  6. Questions on Individual Assignment 2? • Using the hierarchy of control concept, explain how a safety and health manager could manage psychosocial hazard related at the workplace. • Give examples of personal protective equipment suitable to protect workers from exposure to chemicals in a chemical manufacturing factory. • Why personal protective equipment is considered as a “last resort” for use in the hierarchy of control to protect workers from hazardous substances? • List the effects of chronic pesticide poisoning. Describe briefly each type of effect. • Define occupational stress and list common occupational stressors. List the diseases associated with occupational stress and as a manager of human resource, please describe the management of occupational stress. Emilia Zainal Abidin

  7. Cont. • Describe the group of workers at risk for biological hazard exposure. Elaborate on the classification of infective microorganism by risk group. • Describe 2 models to explain the cause of occupational stress. • Define and describe Material Safety Data Sheet or Chemical Safety Data Sheet. • Describe the different work compensation scheme available in Malaysia for private employees, civil servants and foreign workers. • Define biological monitoring. Describe the role of biological monitoring and describe how biological monitoring is done. Emilia Zainal Abidin

  8. Cont. • Please define what sexual harassment is and please describe the different forms of sexual harassment that might occur at the workplace. • What are the potential hazards of working underwater? • What should be included in Medical Emergency Response Plan? What are the elements of Emergency Response Plan? • What is the required number of first aider in a workplace? What is the content of a First Aid Box? • What is the definition of risk communication and what are the 3 goals of risk communication? Emilia Zainal Abidin

  9. Your Recent Mid-Semester Examination • Chapter 1 to 11 from module • 2 hours examination • 50 objectives • 5 out of 8 short answer questions • How well did you do? • Comments or feedback to improve the type of questions • a._____________________________________________ • b._____________________________________________ • c._____________________________________________ Emilia Zainal Abidin

  10. Our Coming Final Exam in May 2014 • Chapter 12 to 22 • 2.00 hours? • 50 objectives? • 5/8 short answer questions? • Any requests? Emilia Zainal Abidin

  11. Responsibility to protect the safety health and welfare of workers and visitors • Duties of an Employer - OSHA 1994 Section 15 – 19 • To ensure the safety, health and welfare at work of all his employees and visitors. • To formulate safety and health policy. Extra protection for the disabled etc. • There are seven regulations under OSHA 1994 that enforced by DOSH. • Employers’ Safety and Health General Policy Statements (Exception) Regulations, 1995 • Control of Industrial Major Accident Hazards Regulations, 1996 • Classification, Packaging and Labelling of Hazardous Chemicals Regulations, 1997 • Safety and Health Committee Regulations, 1996 • Safety and Health Officer Regulations, 1997 • Use and Standards of Exposure of Chemicals Hazardous to Health Regulations, 2000 • Notification of Accident, Dangerous Occurrence, Occupational Poisoning and Occupational Disease Regulations, 2004 Emilia Zainal Abidin

  12. Duties of Safety and Health Officer • to advise employer on the safety and health measures; • to inspect and determine the safety of work place; • to investigate any accident which has happened in the work place; • to assist employer in organizing and implementing OSH programme; • to become secretary to the committee; • to assist the committee in any inspection of the work place; • to collect, analyze and maintain statistics on any accident, dangerous occurrence, occupational poisoning and disease which have occurred at the work place; • to assist any officer in carrying out his duty under the Act; • to carry out other instruction made by the employer on any matters pertaining to OSH. Emilia Zainal Abidin

  13. OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS PSYCHOLOGICAL Stress, boredom, burnout CHEMICAL AGENTS Solvents, gases, vapors, fumes, mists, pesticides etc. PHYSICAL AGENTS noise, vibration, radiation, defective illumination, temperature extremes, dusts BIOLOGICAL AGENTS viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, insects, etc. LACK OF ERGONOMIC PRINCIPLES exhaustive physical exertions, excessive standing, improper motions, lifting heavy load, job monotony, etc.

  14. Occupational health is about identifying hazards and controlling it Emilia Zainal Abidin

  15. Identify the hazard and suggest control methods… Emilia Zainal Abidin

  16. Identify the hazard and suggest control methods… Emilia Zainal Abidin

  17. Identify the hazard and suggest control methods… Emilia Zainal Abidin

  18. Identify the hazard and suggest control methods… Emilia Zainal Abidin

  19. What to focus on? • Chapter 12: Chemical hazards – Pesticides • Based on chapter in module • Classification of pesticides – use?, toxicity, chemical prop., • Occupational exposures of pesticides • Toxic effects from exposure • Neurotoxic effect – acetyl cholinesterase function diagram ?? • How to control and manage pesticide use in the workplace Emilia Zainal Abidin

  20. Agricultural workers Farmers • Handling pesticide with bare hands • Wear short pants and short sleeves without proper PPE

  21. Apply most of the protection but without proper mask • No boots and poor work practices

  22. Exposure to Organophosphate pesticide • May result in: • build-up of acetylcholine • cholinesterase inhibition • constant firing of electrical messages • potential symptoms of: DUMBELSS • -Diarrhoea • -Urination • -Miosis/Muscle weekness • -Excitation of skeleton muscles of CNS • -Lacrimation • -Sweating • -Salivation Emilia Zainal Abidin

  23. What to focus on? • Chapter 13: Bio hazard management • Based on lecture notes • What is biohazard? - A substance derived from an organism, that poses a threat to (primarily) human health. • Divided into: • Body fluids pathogen – Bacteria, Viruses, Fungi, Protozoa, Parasites • Animal – insects, birds • Recombinant DNA – genetic engineering, cloning • Nano-technology • Classification of infective microorganism by risk group? • References are made to the relative hazards of infective microorganisms by World Health Organization Risk Groups 1, 2, 3 & 4. Emilia Zainal Abidin

  24. What to focus on? • Chapter 14: Occupational Psychosocial Hazards • Based on chapter in module and lecture • Scope of occupational psychosocial hazards • Work-related stress • Workplace violence • Bullying • All types of harassment • Work-life imbalance • Type of psychosocial hazards • Questionnaires Emilia Zainal Abidin

  25. Work environment Conceptual Frame Work of Stress Home environment FAMILY & SOCIO DEMOGRAPHIC STRESSORS OCCUPATIONAL STRESSORS Work load Work environment Health status Family Conflict Financial Time and System Management ACUTE AND CHRONIC EFFECT 1. Physiological 2. Psychological 3. Behavioral OUTCOMES OF STRESS Organizational relationship Personality Training MODYFYING VARIABLES SUPPORT Knowledge Skill Social Interaction Coping mechanism Emotional support PERCEIVED STRESS Emilia Zainal Abidin

  26. Emilia Zainal Abidin

  27. Emilia Zainal Abidin

  28. Emilia Zainal Abidin

  29. What to focus on? • Chapter 15: Prevention and Control principles • Based on module • Prevention and control according to the hierarchy of control • Elimination • Substitution • Isolation or Enclosure • Engineering Controls e.gLocal Exhaust Ventilation • Administrative Controls/Safe Work Practices • Personal Protective Equipment Effectiveness Emilia Zainal Abidin

  30. What to focus on? • Chapter 16: Workers’ compensation • Based on the module and half of lecture • Work compensation scheme in Malaysia • Private – SOCSO or Perkeso • Civil servants – Ex-Gratia Scheme • Foreign workers – Insurance from the Workmen Compensation Act • Self-employed – None Emilia Zainal Abidin

  31. SKIM PERKESO SKIM INSURANS BENCANA PEKERJAAN Bencanapadaseseorangpekerjasendiridisebabkanolehkemalanganatausuatupenyakitkhidmatterbitdaripadadandalammasamenjalankanpekerjaandalamsesuatuperusahaan. SKIMFAEDAHPERKESO SKIM PENCEN ILAT Skim inimemberiperlindungan 24 jamkepadapekerjaterhadapkeilatanataukematianakibatsebarangsebab yang tidakberkaitandenganpekerjaan.

  32. Faedah yang disediakan • SKIM INSURANS BENCANA PEKERJAAN • FaedahPerubatan • FaedahHilangupayaSementara • FaedahHilangupayaKekal • ElaunLayananSentiasa • Faedah Orang Tanggungan • FaedahPengurusanMayat • FaedahPemulihan • FaedahPendidikan • SKIM PENCEN ILAT • PencenIlat • BantuanIlat • ElaunLayananSentiasa • PencenPenakat • FaedahPengurusanMayat • FaedahPemulihan • FaedahPendidikan Emilia Zainal Abidin

  33. What to focus on? • Chapter 17: Biological monitoring • Based on the module and notes • What is biological monitoring • Biological monitoring is the measurement of a substance or its metabolite in biological material in order to provide a quantitative estimate of its uptake into the body by all routes of exposures • What are the objectives of biological monitoring? • To ensure that current or past exposure of worker is not harmful to his/her health by detecting potential excessive exposure before overt adverse health effects occur Emilia Zainal Abidin

  34. Exposure, absorption and effects* Ukurpendedahan di persekitarancontoh: ukurdebuataubunyibising di persekitaranselama 8 jam Ambient monitoring Ukur dos yang diserapdalambadanpekerja (bentuktidakberubah) contoh: ukurplumbumdalamdarah Exposure Ukurkesanperubahan yang berlakudari dos terdedahcontoh: ukur Cholinesterase enzyme akibatorganofosfat Internal dose Adverse effects Biological monitoring Biological effect monitoring *Adapted from Cassarett & Doull’s Toxicology 5th Edition, ed. Klassen CD pp995. McGraw Hill, 1995 Emilia Zainal Abidin

  35. What to focus on? • Chapter 18: Stress and Violence and the workplace • Based on the module and lecture • Definition • Scope and characteristics • Any action, incident or behaviour that departs from reasonable conduct in which a person is assaulted, threatened, harmed, injured in the course of, or as a direct result 1 of, his or her work. • Internal workplace violence • is that which takes place between workers, including managers and supervisors. • External workplace violence • is that which takes place between workers (and managers and supervisors) and any other person present at the workplace. Emilia Zainal Abidin

  36. What to focus on? • Chapter 19: Cause and effect of sick leave • Based on the module and lecture • What is sick leave? • The benefit of sick leave • Human right • Protect the worker • Cost of losing an employee is greater than the cost of providing sick days to retain existing employees Emilia Zainal Abidin

  37. Absenteeism in business case Business failure! Sources: WHO (2010). WHO Healthy Workplace Framework and Model: Background and Supporting Literature and Practices. Emilia Zainal Abidin

  38. Example: Tools for tackling short term absence • Rigorous notification procedure • Return to work interviews • Should all short term absences be counted? • Medical evidence? • Withholding sick pay • Employee health initiatives Emilia Zainal Abidin

  39. Example: Tools for tackling long term absence • Keep in touch • Early intervention 4-6 weeks • Consider temporary adjustments • Be proactive in asking for medical advice • Preferably Occupational Health Practitioner Emilia Zainal Abidin

  40. What to focus on? • Chapter 20: Water and Air Decompression • Based on the module and lecture • Gas laws – Boyle and Henry • Hyperbaric work environment (kerja di persekitaranbertekanantinggi) • The effects of hyperbaric work environments • Decompression sickness and other symptoms – kesanseperti bends Emilia Zainal Abidin

  41. Boyle’s Law • The mechanical responses to changes in pressure are in accordance with Boyle's Law, which states that a volume of gas is inversely proportional to the pressure to which it is subjected, temperature remaining constant.

  42. Henry’s Law • The amount of gas in solution is proportional to the partial pressure of that gas over the solution • As the pressure of the gas above a solution increases, the amount of that gas dissolved in the solution increases • Reverse is also true, as the pressure of the gas above a solution decreases, the amount of gas dissolved in the solution decreases and forms a “bubble” of gas within the solution

  43. Henry’s Law Illustration Low pressure equilibrium Low concentration Double the pressure equilibrium Double the concentration

  44. How does the increased pressure at depth affect gas in the body? • The increased pressure of each gas component at depth means that more of each gas will dissolve into the blood and body tissues, a physical effect predicted by Henry's Law • Inhaled gases are in close contact with blood entering the lungs • Hence, the greater the partial pressure of any inhaled gas, the more that gas will diffuse into the blood.

  45. Symptoms of decompression sickness • Bends -

  46. Symptoms of decompression sickness

  47. Symptoms of decompression sickness

  48. What to focus on? • Chapter 21: Emergency Response Plan (ERP) and First Aid • Based on the module • ERP should include • Procedures • Emergency medical equipment • Internal and external contact and support • Management of injury and triage • Evacuation plan • Training to those involved • Local facilities • Give knowledge to all workers • Elements of ERP – evacuation plan, area custodian/damage control team, fire brigade, emergency medical facility • What is in First Aid Box? Emilia Zainal Abidin

  49. What to focus on? • Chapter 22: Risk Communication • Based on module • Definition of risk communication • Primary goals of risk communication • Risk communication strategies • Principles of risk communication Emilia Zainal Abidin