BRITISH EDUCATION SYSTEM Chapter 9
Purpose • Teach basics – reading, writing, arithmetic • Socialize the children-taught rules and values needed to become good citizens • State heavily involved –when, where, how and what children taught
Controversial Decisions • Should children be punished physically? Currently corporal punishment banned in UK • What sort of English should students learn? Should students be forced to speak in a standardized way rather than regional accents?
Controversy-not just about education • Britain is society where social class very important • Educational policy can determine if class inequality can be erased or continued • Continued debate over how “EQUAL” educational opportunity should be • Important relationship between education and social class • 51% working class 49% middle class but opportunities very different between classes
School Tie is Mark of Social Class • Men wear school ties as belts – proudly displaying attendance at certain school • Attendance at certain school (like Oxford or Cambridge) is single best way to guarantee successful career • Where educated is very important for your future
HISTORY • Today British education run by government • Gvt. provides money, oversees standards & tries for all quality ed. • Historically education was voluntary & set up by Churches • Church influence still strong today with daily prayers & hymn singing • WWll moved children to countryside • After WWll restructured 1944 Education Act-entry to higher ed. Available for all based on abilities not class
HISTORY CONTINUED • All students given right to free secondary & good education • 1960’s-”Comprehensive schools” introduced-most academically capable sent to prepare Univ. while less capable vocational schools • 1989-National Curriculum-all must study:english, mathematics, science, religious ed. , history, geography, technology, music, art, p.e. & a modern foreign language. –pass National tests
PRESENT ED. SYSTEM • COMPULSORY 5-15 (4-15 in NI) • State (free) or private • Gov. sometimes assist church schools • League tables school rankings • Usually go near home but may go a distance for better education • 5-11 primary 11-19 secondary • 11+ test if pass educational emphasis on advanced Academics • GCSE General certificate of secondary ed. Which shows progress/course pursue • 16 quit or exams for university or voc. Training • Every 16 & 17 guaranteed full-time ed or training
HIGHER EDUCATION • Most Univ. public paid by gov. • Univ. of Buckingham exception (priv) • Long history back to 12 and 13th cent • Scottish univ. St. Andrews, Glasgow, Edinburgh and Aberdeen 14 & 15th c. • Other univ. 19th and 20th centuries • Large growth in 1960’s • 1992 polytechs and others-univ.
Higher Education Continued • 1991- 353,000 students in universities 87,000 from overseas(25,000 some funding) • 2000-1in 3 attend univ. • The Open University-No requirements to register, take courses thru textbooks, TV, radio, correspondence, videos, residential schools and a network study centers • TOU-all walks of life-coal miners to housewifes • TOU inspired the founding of China’s TV and Radio University. BA, BS, MA, PHd