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Marcus A. Cockerham Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Utah State University PowerPoint Presentation
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Marcus A. Cockerham Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Utah State University

Marcus A. Cockerham Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Utah State University

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Marcus A. Cockerham Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Utah State University

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  1. ECE 5320 – MechatronicsLiterature Survey on Sensors and Actuators 12 March 2010Manifold Valve Actuator Marcus A. Cockerham Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Utah State University m.a.cockerham@usu.edu Ph: (435) 363-4500 Fx: (435) 797-3054

  2. Outline • Introduction • Major Applications • Types of Manifold Valve Actuators • Operating Principles • Typical Configuration • Key Specifications • Limitations and Caveats • Suppliers • Further Information • References 12 Mar 2010 ECE 5320 – Marcus A. Cockerham – Ice Sensor survey -2-

  3. Introduction • Manifold valves are available for pneumatic and hydraulic applications in a wide range of scales and feature sets. From the small, manually operated specimen shown below, to the solenoid-operated, rack mounted variety seen at right. They range in scale up to the large industrial model shown below right, and larger. Image: http://img.directindustry.com/images_di/photo-g/pneumatic-manifold-valve-33093.jpg Image: http://compactvalveandmanifold.com/sitebuilder/images/MANIFOLD_2_004-740x576.jpg Image: http://www.selectchina.com/supplier/150880003/images/12441657101805.jpg 12 Mar 2010 ECE 5320 – Marcus A. Cockerham – Ice Sensor survey -3-

  4. Introduction (2) • Manifolds are typically used to control fluid flow from a central reservoir or supply line to several branches. They can be used to fully open/close a branch, or with more fine control to permit a continuous variation in flow rates. Image: http://news.plumbingpages.com/wp-content/uploads/2006/05/Robbins%20new%20manifold%20R22.05.jpg Image: http://www.pipervalve.com/pvsprods/pvs_prod_pb_manifold_syst/pb_manifold_syst_images/serpb_manifold_syst_pic.gif 12 Mar 2010 ECE 5320 – Marcus A. Cockerham – Ice Sensor survey -4-

  5. Introduction (3) • Manifold valve actuation is accomplished manually, via solenoids, or with pneumatically- or hydraulically-actuated valves. This presentation will neglect the manually-operated varieties in favor of those that can be used in automated controls and mechatronics systems. 12 Mar 2010 ECE 5320 – Marcus A. Cockerham – Ice Sensor survey -5-

  6. Major Applications Manifolds valves are primarily used for routing, distribution, and collection of fluid feedstock, product, and waste. In addition, they are used as control actuators in pneumatic and hydraulic controls systems. They may be considered a fluid analog of a circuit breaker box, which is a collection of switches used to distribute electrical power among several circuits. 12 Mar 2010 ECE 5320 – Marcus A. Cockerham – Ice Sensor survey

  7. Major Applications (2) They are widely used in many industries, including the following: Petrochemical Food Agriculture HVAC/R 12 Mar 2010 ECE 5320 – Marcus A. Cockerham – Ice Sensor survey -7-

  8. Major Applications (3) Energy Manufacturing Hospital/Medical Water/Wastewater Entertainment (cf. pipe organs) 12 Mar 2010 ECE 5320 – Marcus A. Cockerham – Ice Sensor survey -8-

  9. Types of Manifold Valve Actuators Neglecting the purpose of the manifold, the valve actuators may be divided into the following groups: Pneumatic Hydraulic Solenoid Servo 12 Mar 2010 ECE 5320 – Marcus A. Cockerham – Ice Sensor survey -9-

  10. Types of Manifold Valve Actuators (2) These several types of actuators are essentially identical to those used in traditional valves. They will be briefly discussed here, but the reader is advised to consult the links in the “Further Information” section as needed. 12 Mar 2010 ECE 5320 – Marcus A. Cockerham – Ice Sensor survey -10-

  11. Operating Principle A manifold valve is essentially a collection of traditional valves used to simplify routing and control of a fluid network. The primary advantage gained with a manifold is having the valves for the several fluid circuits centrally (and conveniently) located. This allows for easier control of the fluid network, if it is appropriate to the application. 12 Mar 2010 ECE 5320 – Marcus A. Cockerham – Ice Sensor survey -11-

  12. Operating Principle (2) Another benefit of the manifold comes from power amplification. A manifold can use a low-power actuator (electrical, hydraulic, pneumatic) to switch a high-power fluid network. This principle applies generally. 12 Mar 2010 ECE 5320 – Marcus A. Cockerham – Ice Sensor survey -12-

  13. Operating Principle: Pneumatic Consists of a pneumatic actuator that drives a valve. Typically a full-on/full-off device. When operating, will have noise generally associated with pneumatic devices. Uses power only when operating. 12 Mar 2010 ECE 5320 – Marcus A. Cockerham – Ice Sensor survey -13-

  14. Operating Principle: Hydraulic Consists of a hydraulic actuator that drives a valve. Typically a full-on/full-off device. Fast response. Quieter than pneumatic. Uses power only when operating. 12 Mar 2010 ECE 5320 – Marcus A. Cockerham – Ice Sensor survey -14-

  15. Operating Principle: Solenoid Consists of an electromagnetic actuator linked to a valve. When current is applied to the coil, the valve is opened. Another variant closes the valve when current is applied. Typically have a return spring to quickly move the actuator back to its resting position. 12 Mar 2010 ECE 5320 – Marcus A. Cockerham – Ice Sensor survey -15-

  16. Operating Principle: Solenoid (2) Typically a full-on/full-off device. Fast response. Requires continuous power to maintain non-resting state, whether open or closed. 12 Mar 2010 ECE 5320 – Marcus A. Cockerham – Ice Sensor survey -16-

  17. Operating Principle: Servo Consists of a small servo motor linked to a valve. Capable of small, nearly-continuous variations in output (rather than full-on/full-off). May need power to maintain position. Can be very quiet. 12 Mar 2010 ECE 5320 – Marcus A. Cockerham – Ice Sensor survey -17-

  18. Typical Configuration As one example of a typical valve manifold application, consider a building using radiant hot water heating. The building is divided up into several zones, each with its own thermostat. A central boiler supplies heat to the whole building. Manifold Boiler Legend Valve Thermostat Hot water Cold water Control line TS Zone 3 Zone 2 Zone 1 TS TS TS 12 Mar 2010 ECE 5320 – Marcus A. Cockerham – Ice Sensor survey -18-

  19. Typical Configuration (2) When a thermostat calls for heat, the appropriate valve on the manifold responds, delivering heat to the zone. Manifold Boiler Legend Valve Thermostat Hot water Cold water Control line TS Zone 3 Zone 2 Zone 1 TS TS TS 12 Mar 2010 ECE 5320 – Marcus A. Cockerham – Ice Sensor survey -19-

  20. Key Specifications Modularity Can the manifold be expanded in the future as more circuits are added, or is it a custom build that would require complete replacement as needs grow? Flow rate What is the minimum/maximum flow rate through the manifold? Manifolds are available in a wide variety of sizes and capacities. 12 Mar 2010 ECE 5320 – Marcus A. Cockerham – Ice Sensor survey -20-

  21. Key Specifications (2) Chemical compatibility What fluid is being transported? What is the operating environment? Some valve manifold parts may be sensitive to certain chemicals, particularly solvents. Particulate tolerance Does the flow contain particulate matter or other debris? Some valve manifolds are incompatible with such flows 12 Mar 2010 ECE 5320 – Marcus A. Cockerham – Ice Sensor survey -21-

  22. Key Specifications (3) Robustness How sensitive is the device to contamination? Will contamination cause permanent damage, or can it be restored to operation by cleaning? Operating temperature What is the operating temperature range of the manifold? It is important to consider both the environment temperature and that of the flow. Special manifolds are available for cryo fluids. 12 Mar 2010 ECE 5320 – Marcus A. Cockerham – Ice Sensor survey -22-

  23. Key Specifications (4) Flow losses What are the minor losses (per segment) of the manifold? The pressure could be noticeably lower at the “last” valve than at the first if the flow is high enough. Power consumption What are the power needs of the device? Does it consume only when switching, or also when maintaining a state? 12 Mar 2010 ECE 5320 – Marcus A. Cockerham – Ice Sensor survey -23-

  24. Limitations and Caveats Material expense When centralizing the control of a fluid network, more fluid lines must be run to the manifold than would otherwise be needed. This is offset somewhat by shorter control lines. Sensitivity to damage When the manifold is damaged, it has the potential to disrupt the entire network. Distributed controls allow for the network to be segmented, and permit unaffected areas to continue operation. 12 Mar 2010 ECE 5320 – Marcus A. Cockerham – Ice Sensor survey -24-

  25. Suppliers http://www.thomasnet.com/products/valve-manifolds-96023270-1.html http://www.grainger.com/Grainger/wwg/search.shtml?searchQuery=manifold&op=search&Ntt=manifold&sst=subset&N=13380 http://www.valvemanifold.net/needle-valves.html#valve-manifolds http://www.tateandale.com/downloads/TA30.pdf 12 Mar 2010 ECE 5320 – Marcus A. Cockerham – Ice Sensor survey -25-

  26. Suppliers (2) http://www.swagelok.com/valves/manifold-valves/index.htm http://www.foodonline.com/product.mvc/Servo-assisted-modular-valves-0001 12 Mar 2010 ECE 5320 – Marcus A. Cockerham – Ice Sensor survey -26-

  27. Further Information Manifolds: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydraulic_manifold http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valve Pneumatic valves: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pneumatic_motor http://www.engineersedge.com/hydraulic/pneumatic_actuator.htm Solenoid valves: http://mechatronics.ece.usu.edu/ece5320/Schedule/hw01-2009/danmorgansolenoidvalve.pdf http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solenoid_valve 12 Mar 2010 ECE 5320 – Marcus A. Cockerham – Ice Sensor survey -27-

  28. References • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydraulic_manifold • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Block_and_bleed_manifold • http://mechatronics.ece.usu.edu/ece5320/Schedule/hw01-2009/danmorgansolenoidvalve.pdf • http://mechatronics.ece.usu.edu/ece5320/Schedule/hw01-2007/Camron-Seamons_a.ppt • http://mechatronics.ece.usu.edu/ece5320/Schedule/hw01-2005/mechatronics%20-%20actuators%20-%20okan%20gurdil.ppt 12 Mar 2010 ECE 5320 – Marcus A. Cockerham – Ice Sensor survey -28-