Romantic Era: Industrialization • Industrialization transformed British society in the 18th c. • 1775 Watt's first efficient steam engine, much more efficient than the Newcomen. • 1777 Grand Trunk Canal establishes a cross-England route connecting the Mersey to the Trent and connecting the industrial Midlands to the ports of Bristol, Liverpool, and Hull. • 1779 First steam powered mills. Crompton's "mule" combines Hargreaves' and Arkwright's machines, fully automating the weaving process. • 1786 Arkwright puts a Watt engine in the Albion cotton mill, Blackfriars Bridge, London.
Romantic Era: Industrialization • Industrialization transformed British society in the 18th c. • 1787 Cartwright builds a power loom. • 1789 Thames-Severn Canal links the Thames to the Bristol Channel. • 1792 William Murdock (James Watt's assistant) lights his home with coal gas. • 1793 Eli Whitney develops his cotton gin (a device to clean raw cotton). • 1793-1803 Thomas Telford builds his two great iron aqueducts, over the Dee and the Cierog valleys. • 1801 Robert Trevithick demonstrates a steam locomotive. • 1803-22 Caledonian Ship Canal cuts clear across Scotland via the Great Glen.
Romantic Era: Industrialization • Industrialization transformed British society in the 18th c. • 1807 Robert Fulton's Clermont first successful steamboat. • 1811-15 Luddite riots: laborers attack factories and break up the machines they fear will replace them. • 1821 Faraday demonstrates electro-magnetic rotation, the principle of the electric motor. • 1825 Marc Brunel invents a tunnelling shield, making subaqueous tunnelling possible. • 1826-42 Brunel builds the first subaqueous tunnel, under the Thames. • 1827 Berkeley Ship Canal connects Sharpness (on the Severn) to Gloucester. • 1830 Manchester–Liverpool railway begins first regular commercial rail service.
Romantic Era: Industrialization • Industrialization transformed British society in the 18th c. • 1831 Faraday discovers electro-magnetic current, making possible generators and electric engines. • 1834 Charles Babbage develops his analytic engine--the forerunner of the computer. Fox Talbot produces photographs. • 1837 Morse develops the telegraph and Morse Code. Great Western--first ocean-going steamship. • 1838 Daguerre perfects the Daguerrotype. • 1839 Fox Talbot introduces photographic paper. • 1843 Great Britain--first large, iron, screw-propelled steamship. • 1844 Commercial use of Morse's telegraph (Baltimore to Washington).
Mary Darby Robinson • 1758-1800 • actress • author • mistress of George IV • debuted for David Garrick as Juliet • associated with Wordsworth and Coleridge in Lyrical Ballads
Beneath an old wall, that went round an old castle, For many a year, with brown ivy o'erspread; A neat little hovel, its lowly roof raising, Defied the wild winds that howl'd over its shed: The turrets, that frown'd on the poor simple dwelling, Were rock'd to and fro, when the tempest would roar, And the river, that down the rich valley was swelling, Flow'd swiftly beside the green step of its door. The summer sun gilded the rushy roof slanting, The bright dews bespangled its ivy-bound hedge, And above, on the ramparts, the sweet birds were chanting, And wild buds thick dappled the clear river's edge, When the castle's rich chambers were haunted and dreary, The poor little hovel was still and secure; And no robber e'er enter'd, nor goblin nor fairy, For the splendours of pride had no charms to allure. Robinson “The Poor, Singing, Dame”
The lord of the castle, a proud surly ruler, Oft heard the low dwelling with sweet music ring, For the old dame that lived in the little hut cheerly, Would sit at her wheel, and would merrily sing: When with revels the castle's great hall was resounding, The old dame was sleeping, not dreaming of fear; And when over the mountains the huntsmen were bounding She would open her lattice, their clamours to hear. To the merry-toned horn she would dance on the threshold, And louder, and louder repeat her old song: And when winter its mantle of frost was displaying, She caroll'd, undaunted, the bare woods among: She would gather dry fern, ever happy and singing, With her cake of brown bread, and her jug of brown beer, And would smile when she heard the great castle-bell ringing, Inviting the proud to their prodigal cheer. Robinson “The Poor, Singing, Dame”
Thus she lived, ever patient and ever contented, Till envy the lord of the castle possess'd, For he hated that poverty should be so cheerful, While care could the fav'rites of fortune molest; He sent his bold yeomen with threats to prevent her, And still would she carol her sweet roundelay; At last, an old steward relentless he sent her Who bore her, all trembling, to prison away! Three weeks did she languish, then died broken-hearted, Poor dame! how the death-bell did mournfully sound! And along the green path six young bachelors bore her, And laid her for ever beneath the cold ground! And the primroses pale 'mid the long grass were growing, The bright dews of twilight bespangled her grave, And morn heard the breezes of summer soft blowing, To bid the fresh flowerets in sympathy wave. Robinson “The Poor, Singing, Dame”
The lord of the castle, from that fatal moment When poor singing Mary was laid in her grave, Each night was surrounded by screech-owls appalling, Which o'er the black turrets their pinions would wave! On the ramparts that frown'd on the river, swift flowing, They hover'd, still hooting a terrible song, When his windows would rattle, the winter blast blowing, They would shriek like a ghost, the dark alleys among! Wherever he wander'd they followed him crying; At dawnlight, at eve, still they haunted his way! When the moon shone across the wide common they hooted, Nor quitted his path till the blazing of day. His bones began wasting, his flesh was decaying, And he hung his proud head, and he perish'd with shame; And the tomb of rich marble, no soft tear displaying, O'ershadows the grave of the poor singing dame! Robinson “The Poor, Singing, Dame”
Robert Burns • 1759-1796 • key figure of Scottish revival • “myth of natural poet” • “heaven-taught plowman” • self-educated but well-versed in Scottish lit and folklore • “Green go the rashes” • “Auld Lang Syne”
Joanna Baillie • 1762-1851 • Key figure part of the Scottish Literary Revival that occurred in this period and is associated with Robert Burns • Worked largely in dramatic works • Song: “Woo’d and married and a’” 217
Felicia Dorothea Hemans • 1793 - 1835 • precocious daughter of Liverpool merchants • died at 41 • very popular • known for her pieces that became standard recitation pieces
The boy stood on the burning deck Whence all but he had fled; The flame that lit the battle's wreck Shone round him o'er the dead. Yet beautiful and bright he stood, As born to rule the storm; A creature of heroic blood, A proud, though child-like form. The flames rolled onhe would not go Without his Father's word; That father, faint in death below, His voice no longer heard. He called aloud'say, Father, say If yet my task is done?' He knew not that the chieftain lay Unconscious of his son. Casabianca
'Speak, father!' once again he cried, 'If I may yet be gone!' And but the booming shots replied, And fast the flames rolled on. Upon his brow he felt their breath, And in his waving hair, And looked from that lone post of death In still yet brave despair. And shouted but once more aloud, 'My father! must I stay?' While o'er him fast, through sail and shroud, The wreathing fires made way. They wrapt the ship in splendour wild, They caught the flag on high, And streamed above the gallant child, Like banners in the sky. Casabianca
There came a burst of thunder sound The boyoh! where was he? Ask of the winds that far around With fragments strewed the sea! With mast, and helm, and pennon fair, That well had borne their part But the noblest thing which perished there Was that young faithful heart. Notes: 1.Young Casabianca, a boy about thirteen years old, son of the admiral of the Orient, remained at his post (in the Battle of the Nile), after the ship had taken fire, and all the guns had been abandoned; and perished in the explosion of the vessel, when the flames had reached the powder. Casabianca