Grammar GripesParts of Speech English II Mrs. Urbaniak
Warm-ups: August 30th • Make a list of the 8 different parts of speech • Describe each one • You will have 10 minutes to complete this warm-up
The 8 Parts of Speech Noun Pronoun Verb Adjective Adverbs Preposition Conjunction Interjections
Nouns • The name of a person, place, or thing. • Identify the noun(s) in the following sentences “Americans awaited a quiet summer.”
Which words written in bold are nouns? The civil war antedates the Korean War by decades. The two together are an interesting combination. Stubb was confined to the ship’s hold. The boy was a lonely introvert who kept to himself. Before Romeo left, Juliet had a frightening premonition.
Pronouns • Pronouns take the place of nouns • Masculine Gender: he, him, his • Feminine Gender: she, her, hers • Neutral Gender: it • Pronouns may also have a person and number:
Pronoun-Antecedents • The pronoun's antecedent is the noun that the pronoun replaces. “Jimmy is the world’s best cook; he makes great Italian dishes.”
Subject Pronouns Singular Plural First Person we Second Person you Third Person they • First Person I • Second Person you • Third Person he, she, it
Object Pronouns Singular Plural First Person us Second Person you Third Person them • First Person me • Second Person you • Third Person him, her, it
Indefinite Pronouns • Refer to someone or something that is not specified • They do not have antecedents as subjects someone, somebody, and anyone
Pronoun /Antecedent agreement “Alexander bought the column to a halt; he summoned his mapmaker.” “The soldiers found Archimedes; they did not recognize the famous old man.” “Crick and Watson discovered the double helix; they won the Nobel Prize.”
Common Errors “Somebody lost their book.” “Someone is missing their backpack.”
Possessive Pronouns Mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, yours, theirs “Please inscribe mine too.” *Do not confuse possessive pronouns with possessive adjectives “This is my book.”
Interrogative Pronouns • An interrogative pronoun is just what its name suggests. It’s a pronoun used to interrogate: who, whose, whom, which, what. “Who went to the piazza?”
Demonstrative Pronouns • Demonstrative Pronouns demonstrate: this, that, these, those. “This is the dog I like.”
Relative Pronouns • A relative pronoun is a pronoun that relates an adjective clause to a main clause; more about this later. (Who, whose, whom, which, that) The relative pronouns often begin short adjective clauses that interrupt main clauses “The man who followed you turned left.”
Reflexive Pronouns • A reflexive pronoun in a –self or –selves pronoun that reflects back to a word used previously in the sentence. “I found myself awash on a strange beach.”
Intensive Pronoun • An intensive pronoun is also a –self or –selves pronoun, but it is used to intensify the emphasis on a preceding noun, usually the subject. “I myself agree with him.”
Summary Subject Object Possessive Interrogative Demonstrative Indefinite Relative Reflexive Intensive
Adjectives • Adjective modify nouns or pronouns “The red car.” “The old house.” “…the very beginning” “He was tall.”
Three degrees of adjectives Positive = good Comparative = better Superlative = best
Proper Adjectives • Proper adjectives are made out of proper nouns England = English Rome = Roman
Verbal Adjectives • Sometimes we use verb forms to as adjectives to modify nouns or pronouns Participle form: “the running water” Infinitive form: “the team to beat”
Number Adjectives “…two dogs” “seven rocks” Note: Numbers should always be written out in academic writing!
Articles • The articles are three adjectives a, an, and the used to modify nouns. Definite article: “the” Indefinite article: “a “ and “an”
“There was something rather Elizabethan about him—his casual versatility his good looks, that effervescent combination of mental and physical activities.”
“He had a long chin and pronoun v. adj. adj. N. big, rather prominent adj. Adv. Adj. teeth.” N.
Verbs! A verb shows action or being or links a subject to a subject complement. The verb is the main word about the noun. The verb tells what the noun is doing, or that it exists, or what is equal to.
Action Verb Shows a nouns action on a direct object “Verdi composed the opera.” An action might show simple action not on a direct object. “Verdi composed carefully.”
Linking verbs link. Action verbs show the subject acting: “Sue caught the fish.” Linking verbs say that two things are the same; they make equations: “Sue is my friend.”
To be… The most common linking verb is the verb to be: “I am a refugee, Alexander was a genius. Other linking verbs that sound like action verbs: become, grow, seem, sound, smell, and taste.
Linking verbs can link adjectives to pronouns. “He was serene as he entered the arena.”
Being verbs Being verb is a third type of verb, more rare than action or linking verbs, that express pure existence—being—as when Hamlet said, “To be, or not to be, that is the question.”
Action verbs express action. Linking verbs express equation. Being verbs express existence.
Linking, Action, or Being… Mort saw a frog. Gorf was a frog. Mort has a frog. Gorf smells good. Mort smells a frog. There was a frog.
Verbs are tense. Present Past Future Present perfect Past perfect Future perfect
Verbs are tense. Present Past Future Present perfect Past perfect Future perfect I go. I went. I will go. I have gone. I had gone. I will have gone.
Four principal parts of the verb Verb tenses are based on four primary forms that each verb possesses. These four primary forms are called the verb’s principal parts: The infinitive The present participle The past The past participle
Infinitive To do (do), to go (go), to think (think), to dream (dream)
Present Participle Doing, going, thinking, dreaming
Past Did, went, thought, dreamed
Past participle Done, gone, thought, dreamed
Auxiliary or Helping Verbs Auxiliary verbs combine with main verbs to express tense, mood, voice, or condition. In a simple tense the verb stands alone, as a single word: John chortled. In a compound tense the principal part Is supplemented by an auxiliary or helping verb to construct the tense: John has chortled, or John will have chortled.
Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs fall into three categories: Primary Modal Marginal
Primary Be, do, have These verbs can also be main verbs, used by themselves. They are used to create compound tenses and emphatic forms. I am talking I do eat spinach I have not retorted.
Modal Can/could, may/might, must, shall/should, will/would These helping verbs are sometimes called defective because thay are auxiliary only; they cannot be main verbs and have no infinitive form. They help us create subjunctive and conditional forms of main verbs.
I can accede your dictum. I might circumvent the question. I must equivocate. I should excoriate. I would procrastinate.
Marginal Auxiliary verbs: dare, need, ought to, used to When used as auxiliary verbs, these enhance the meaning of main verbs. “I dare not mollify his anger.” “I need not amplify my synopsis.”