Parts of Speech • Noun • Pronoun • Verb • Adverb • Adjective • Preposition • Conjunction • Interjection
Noun A noun is a word that names a person, place, a thing, or an idea in your writing. Person: students, secretary, Bob, Janet Place: city, sky, Texas, FCMS Thing: cat, clouds, pie, ferrets Idea: the strength, her truth, an effect Concrete Noun (you can touch it): water, table Abstract Noun (you cannot touch it): joy, August, kindness
Pronoun A pronoun is a word used in place of a noun. I you heshe it wethey Me him herusthem Antecedent: The noun replaced, or referred to. • The temperaturewas so hot that it broke a record. • Ms. Jones said that shenever saw snow before.
Indefinite Pronouns An indefinite pronounrefers people or things that are not specifically named.
Indefinite Pronouns Sentences Singular: Somebody needs to help Lucy tie her shoes. Plural:Many of the trees were saved from the fire. Singular: All of the rain is over for today, but it will return tomorrow. (singular because rain is singular) Plural:Many of the trees were saved from the fire. (plural because trees are plural)
Verb The main verb either shows action or links the subject to another word in the sentence. A “helping” (linking) verb “helps” to complete the main verb. Action: The hurricane destroyed many homes. Linking: Hurricane Katrina has hit Texas.
Adverb Answers how, when (how often), where, how much. How? Dad drove carefully through the fog. When? We hope it clears up later. Where? The fog seems to be everywhere. How (much)? It completely blocks my view of our yard.
Adjective Adjectives are words that describe (modify) nouns or pronouns. Helps reader see, feel, hear, smell, and taste. What kind? Spanish moss;talltree; sable ferret How much/many? fewbooks; sixferrets; some rain Which one? That desk; those ferrets; last person Comparative: The ferret is smaller than a cat. Superlative: It’s the smallestferret of the litter.
Preposition/Prepositional Phrase A preposition is the first word in a phrase; it is followed by a noun. • It is considered added information. • It can act as an adjective to describe a noun or pronoun (what kind?, how many?, how much?, which one?). NOUN The weatherreporton channel 13predicts a cool night with clear skies. NOUN
Preposition/Prepositional Phrase • It can also act as a adverbto describe a verb (how?, when?, where?, how long?, how often?, how much?). VERB • Is hasn’t rained in Sugarlandfor three weeks. Where? How long?
Coordinating Conjunctions A coordinating conjunction connects two independent clauses/sentences to make a compound sentence. • FANBOYS are the most common. • A comma is needed before the FANBOYS. • The holidays are coming up, and I can’t wait to sleep in! • I love my mother’s potato casserole, yet my brother’s sweet potatoes are delicious too.
Subordating Conjunction They connect dependant clauses/sentence to an independent clauses/sentence. • Remember, a dependant clause can not stand by itself; an independent clause/sentence can. • The subordinating conjunction ‘complicates’ the sentence, so it is called a “complex sentence.” • Refer to your SAM Sheet for the list.
Subordinate Clause at the beginning of a sentence • If the subordinate clause is at the beginning of the sentence, a comma is needed. SC Because we don’t get the chance to get together very often, Thanksgiving is a special holiday. independent sentence
Subordinate Clause at the beginning of a sentence • If the subordinate clause is at the end of the sentence, a comma is NOT needed. • These can be harder to identify, so you need to look close and refer to your SAM Sheet. independent sentence SC My grandparents are flying downso they can share the holiday with us. (don’t get this confused with a compound sentence).
More examples… independent sentence SC Thanksgiving is a special holidaybecause we don’t get the chance to get together very often. SC independent sentence Although I like Thanksgiving, Christmas is my favorite holiday of the yearbecause we get presents. SC
Interjection An interjection is a word or phrase used to express strong emotion or surprise. Punctuation (a comma or an exclamation point) is used to separate an interjection from the rest of the sentence. Wow, would you look at that! Oh no!He’s falling! Forget it!We are not getting another ferret. Yikes! I told my friends we were already.