Parts of Speech Part II
Verbs • Verbs show the action or being of a sentence • Action Verbs throw, run, sing, dance, holler, play • Being Verbs is, was, were, are, seems, appears, smells • Helping Verbs (can be used with action or being verbs): had been, might, could, should, will, might have been, could have been
Linking Verbs • You probably already know action verbs very well, but linking verbs are more difficult to identify. • A linking verb is any verb that can complete this sentence: Sally ____ sad. • Sally is sad. Sally was sad. • Sally seems sad. Sally feels sad. • Sally will be sad. Sally has been sad. • Sally looks sad. Sally sounds sad. • Note that Sally isn’t DOING anything in any of these sentences; she’s just being sad.
Linking Verb Practice • Go to the link below, and find all the linking verbs. You can print it out if you have any questions; remember that knowing the linking verbs will help you a lot when you are trying to find subjects and verbs. • www.superteacherworksheets.com/actionverbs/linkingverbs.pdf
Note on Verbals • Verbals are words that look like verbs but do not act or “count” as verbs. • Verbals can be gerunds or –ing verbs • Swimming, trying, being, loving, learning • Verbals can be infinitives or “to verbs” • To swim, to try, to be, to love, to learn • Don’t count these as verbs when you’re looking for verbs in a sentence.
Finding Verbs • One trick to finding verbs is to put the word “Yesterday” or “Tomorrow” in front of the sentence. This will force you to change the tense of the sentence, and verbs are the only words that change tense, so you will easily find the verbs. • For example: The girl straightens her hair. • Put “Yesterday” in front of this sentence, and which word has to change? • Yesterday, the girls straightened her hair.
Verbs • After looking over verbs and doing the worksheet, do the verb section on the DLA and ask the instructor on duty any questions that you may have about verbs.
Prepositions • Prepositions are small words that are used in prepositional phrases to add more information to a sentence. • Imagine a bunny and a box. Any little word that can define the relationship between the bunny and the box is a preposition. • The bunny is on the box. In the box. Near the box. • The bunny is going through the box. By the box. Away from the box.
Purpose of Identification • It’s especially important to identify prepositional phrases when you are trying to find subjects of sentences because the words in a prepositional phrase will never be the subjects of your sentences. In fact, you can just cross them out to make life easier. • Pay particular attention to prepositional phrases that start with the preposition “of”. Nine of my friends are here. In this case, Nine is the subject of the sentence, not friends. • It’s worthwhile to loosely memorize the list of prepositions, so you can always cross out prepositional phrases when you want to see the bare bones of any sentence.
Common Prepositions • about • above • across • after • against • along • among • around • at • before • behind • below • beneath • beside • between • by • down • during • except • for • from • in • in front of • inside • instead of • into • like • near • of • off • on • onto • on top of • out of • outside • over • past • since • through • to • toward • under • underneath • until • up • upon • with • within • without
Prepositional Phrases • Fill in words to complete these prepositional phrases. Remember that every prepositional phrase consists of a preposition at the beginning and an object at the end (a noun or a pronoun). • She brought the dog to the ______. • The dog put its toy ______ the bed. • We pulled the thread _______ the needle. • We have found ourselves _______ a rock and a hard place. • I never like to find a lizard ______ my house. • ______ lunch, he often gets tired.
Prepositions • After looking over the prepositions and thinking about prepositional phrases, do the preposition section on the DLA and ask the instructor on duty any questions that you may have about prepositions.
Conjunctions • Conjunctions are used to connect two parts of a sentence. • If you have headphones, you can watch this Conjunction Junction video: • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mkO87mkgcNo
Types of Conjunctions • It’s important to know the different types of conjunctions because they each take different punctuation when combining sentences. • Coordinating Conjunctions: There are only seven of these, and they are all small words; taken together, they spell out FANBOYS: • For, And, Nor, But, Or , Yet, So • When combining two complete sentences, these words only need a comma. • The man went to the store, and the woman went to the movies.
Conjunctions (continued) • Subordinating Conjunctions: these medium-sized words are used to make one sentence dependent on another. • after, although, as, as soon as, because, before, even if, even though, if, once, only if, since, though, unless, until, when, whenever, whereas, whether or not, while • These words don’t like punctuation near them at all, so when you use a comma, it’s usually quite far from one of these words. • Because the rain came so early, the plants grew quickly. • The plants grew quickly because the rain came so early.
Types of Conjunctions • Adverbial Conjunctions: these big, British-sounding words are used to combine big ideas, often two complete sentences. • Accordingly, furthermore, moreover, similarly, also, hence, however, nevertheless, then, next, nonetheless, therefore, consequently, instead, now, thus, finally, likewise, otherwise, undoubtedly, meanwhile. • These words LOVE punctuation, and when you use them to combine sentences, you need a semicolon and a comma, like body guards around these self-important words. • The government was in recess; however, the bill was still passed.
Conjunctions • Take some time to study and even memorize these categories of conjunctions. It will make punctuation and avoiding run-ons so much easier in the future. Now, do the conjunction section on the DLA and ask the instructor on duty any questions that you may have about conjunctions.
Interjections • Interjections are single word exclamations. We don’t use them in academic writing, but we certainly use them in casual conversation. • Wow! Hey! Whoa! Yeah! Damn! • Just for fun, you can watch this Schoolhouse Rock video on interjections (so funny!): • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rP4N27kbMdk
Interjections • After looking over the interjections, do the interjection section on the DLA and ask the instructor on duty any questions that you may have about interjections.