Parts of Speech Nouns Adverbs Pronouns Conjunctions Verbs Prepositions Adjectives Interjections All parts of speech are determined by how the word FUNCTIONS within a sentence.
Noun Traditional definition: a word that names a person, place, thing , or idea
Noun A Noun Functions as: • Subject (Names the person, place, thing or idea that the sentence is talking about) • Direct Object (Follows a transitive verb and receives the action of the verb) • Indirect Object (Follows a transitive verb and receives the direct object) • Predicate Nominative (Follows a linking verb and renames the subject--a.k.a. “subject complement”) • Object of Preposition (Follows a preposition) • Appositive (Renames the noun it follows) • Direct Address (Names a person or persons spoken to in a sentence) • Object of Verbals (Follows infinitives, gerunds, or participles) • Object Complement (Follows a direct object and identifies it)
Noun Bob hit a homerun over the fence. S V DO 1) Find the verb. 2) Find the subject. Ask “Who” or “What” + Verb = Subject 3) Find any direct objects. Say “Subject” + “Verb” then ask “Whom” or “What” 4) Find any indirect objects. Say “Subject” + “Verb” + “Direct Object” then ask “To Whom” or “To What” or “For Whom” or “For What” No indirect objects in this sentence.
Noun Harry bought Mary a cute puppy with floppy ears. S V IO DO Verb Subject Direct Object Indirect Object Note the Sentence Pattern: The IO comes between the V and DO
An Appositive is a noun that follows another noun and renames it. Rich, the best student in the class, earned an A. S App OP DO Most often, appositives are surrounded by commas and can be taken out of the sentence without changing the meaning of the sentence. Appositives add information, but not necessarily information important to the grammar or sense of the sentence.
Pronoun A word that can take the place of a noun Example: John is here. He is here. There are many types of pronouns that are not so easily explained. See the lists in your grammar book and read them over frequently. Some pronouns are that, which, his, anyone, its, mine, herself, one . . . The list goes on. See your Grammar book page 123.
Types of Pronouns Personal – refer to a person or persons: I, he, her, them . . . Reflexive or Intensive – all end in –self or –selves myself, themselves . . . Demonstrative – this, that, these, those Indefinite – one, anyone, something, either . . . Relative – that, which, who, whose . . .
Verb A verb is a word that expresses action or a state of being. Every sentence has at least one verb.
In sentences that contain direct objects, the verb is a Transitive Verb--it transfers the action from the subject to the object. The direct object receives the action of the verb. Jack gave his dog a biscuit. S V IO DO In sentences that contain no direct objects, the verb is an Intransitive Verb--the subject performs an action which does not transfer to an object. Jack sings in the chorus. S V OP
To Be SingularPlural Present am, are, is are Past was; were were Future will/shall be will/shall be Present Perfect has/have been have been Past Perfect had been had been Future Perfect will/shall have been will/shall have been Progressive being being
Adjective • A word that describes a noun or pronoun. Example: a blue van What else one should know about adjectives: • They are removable. The sentence stands without them • They usually come in front of the noun. • They can usually be compared: blue, bluer, bluest • They answer the questions: • Which one? • What kind? • How many? How much?
Adverb • A word that describes a verb (most of the time), an adjective or another adverb Example: He drove quickly down the lane. (verb) Her hair color is too red. (adjective) She wrote her essay very carefully. (adverb)
Prepositions • Words that connect one word with another. Example: the top of his head. ofconnects top and head. Prepositions show relationships between words. You must MEMORIZE the list of prepositions and become extremely familiar with it. See your grammar book page 131.
A Prepositional Phrase begins with a preposition and ends with an object of preposition (a noun or pronoun). Prepositional phrases act as modifiers--adjectives or adverbs. The ball rolled under the table. S V PP OP “under the table” answers the question “Where?” so the PP acts as an adverb. The dog with the red collar ran home. S PP OP V “with the red collar” answers the question “Which one?” so the PP acts as an adjective.
A Phrase is a group of words that functions as one part of speech. They have thrown the ball under the car. S V DO PP OP “have thrown” acts as one verb. “under the car” answers the question “Where?” so it functions as one adverb. A Clause is a group of words containing a subject and verb. Do not confuse a phrase with a clause.