Parts of Speech Grammar Review/ Introduction
8 parts of speech • Noun • Pronoun • Verb • Adjective • Adverb • Conjunction • Preposition • Interjection
What are parts of speech? • Definition: words that label the various kinds of words in a sentence • A word’s meaning & position in a sentence determine what part of speech it is. • Some words change depending on the context. Ex: ridecan be a verb or a noun.
Nouns FUNCTION EXAMPLES • Words that name persons, animals, places, things, or ideas • Proper nouns name particular people, animals, places, or things—they are almost always capitalized • Singular or plural form (#) • Woman, desk, teacher, student, bear, mountain, personality, religion, city, country, happiness • Ms. Schonhar, Greer Middle College, California, Mt. Everest, Furman University, etc. • Girl (singular) vs. girls (plural)
NOUN PRACTICE Circle the nouns (and determine whether singular—S—or plural—P) and underline the proper nouns. Charlie was so excited to go to school at Greer Middle College this August. He had planned for weeks to wear his snazzy blue shirt and Nike shoes. While he was enthusiastic about school, his sister was not. Susie did everything she could to avoid getting into the car that morning. She even hid under the covers and hoped her mom wouldn’t find her. That was a bad plan. Eventually, the siblings went to school and everything was fine! Who needs to worry about such things as school?
PRONOUNS FUNCTION EXAMPLES • A substitute for a noun (or for another pronoun). The word that the pronoun replaces it called its antecedent. • If the assignment is long, it will require some planning. • Here, it is the pronoun, and assignment is its antecedent. • Personal—I, me, we, us, you, she, he, him, they, it, etc. • Demonstrative— this, these, that, those • Interrogative—which, who, whose, etc. • Indefinite— each, many, none, one, some, both, anyone, neither, everything, etc. • Possessive—his, her, my, our, your, their, its
PRONOUN PRACTICE Highlight the pronouns and draw an arrow to their antecedents (if applicable). Also, write P if the pronoun is personal, D if it is demonstrative, INT if it is interrogative, IND if it is indefinite, and POS if it is possessive. Charlie was so excited to go to school at Greer Middle College this August. He had planned for weeks to wear his snazzy blue shirt and Nike shoes. While he was enthusiastic about school, his sister was not. Susie did everything she could to avoid getting into the car that morning. She even hid under the covers and hoped her mom wouldn’t find her. That was a bad plan. Eventually, the siblings went to school and everything was fine! Who needs to worry about such things as school?
VERBS FUNCTION EXAMPLES Describes an action or state of being Tenses—example Present Past Progressive Perfect Future • Changes to show: • Person=who did it (i.e. I writevs She writes) • Number= one or more? (i.e. he singsvs They sing) • Tense= when it happens (i.e. She arguesvs She argued) • Voice= acting or acted upon (i.e. She paid the bill vs The bill was paid) • Mood= speaker’s stance toward action (i.e. I am awesome vs If I were awesome)
VERB PRACTICE In the following paragraph, circle the verbs. Also, indicate if the verb is past, present, progressive, or perfect. Sarah participates well in class. While she disliked middle school, she truly enjoys high school. Sarah’s favorite thing about high school is the lunch; she loves Zaxby’s! Her friend Ruby is running cross country for GMC, and she has practiced every day with the team for a few weeks now. Sarah is not a fan of running, but she likes to exercise. Maybe Sarah will go to tryouts for golf, if her mom approves.
ADJECTIVES FUNCTION EXAMPLES • Adjectives modify (limit the meaning of) nouns and pronouns • They describe, identify, or quantify (#) these words • **Adjectives usually come before the words they modify, though they may follow verbs • ***Articles (a, an, the) are also adjectives • Thegreen Jeep ran off the road. • That Jeep has a flat tire. • I saw several Jeeps drive by. • Thedefective car was in the shop. • The car was defective. • I saw the car drive by.
ADJECTIVE PRACTICE Circle the adjectives and draw arrows to the nouns/pronouns they modify. 1. Stephen seemed angry after he finished the new book. 2. Martin’s diligent studying has made the difference in his grade. 3. Before the next meeting, the president will meet with the marketing staff. 4. Alabama’s governor replied quickly to the blunt question. 5. Their old dog has stopped retrieving the daily newspaper. 6. The painted dresser, which looked blue last evening, has green highlights. 7. The conductor was completely delighted with our strong performance. 8. Professor Dumbledore made a surprise announcement: Harry would compete in the upcoming tournament. 9. They answered the challenging questions but missed the easy ones. 10. Ted’s father generously provided him a weekly allowance.
ADVERBS FUNCTION EXAMPLES • Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, other adverbs, or entire clauses. Many adverbs end in –ly, though some don’t (always, never, very, well, etc.). • Tell how, when, or, where something happens • John recently visited his father in Greer. • It was unexpectedly exciting. • He verysoon discovered Jones Gap. • Frankly, he would have stayed another month.
ADVERB PRACTICE Underline the verb(s). Circle the adverb(s) in the sentences below. Be sure to find adverbs modifying adjectives/entire clauses as well. 1. Scott carefully completed his obnoxiously lengthy homework. 2. We’re going to the store today. 3. The sad dog ran away. 4. Noisily, the helicopter flew in the sky. 5. We often eat dinner with our family. 6. My parents are happily married. 7. He quickly closed the door. 8. Later, we will have an expertly prepared dinner. 9. Before their wedding, the happily engaged couple saved their money.
CONJUNCTIONS FUNCTION EXAMPLES Conjunctionsconnect words or groups of words to each other and tell something about the relationships between these words. Coordinating Conjunctions join equal structures (i.e. two or more nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, phrases, or clauses) Correlative Conjunctions join equal elements in pairs Subordinating Conjunctions show the relationship between an adverb clause (usually dependent) and another clause (independent) Coordinating Conjunctions: For And Nor But Or Yet So FANBOYS Correlative Conjunctions: Both/And Neither/ Nor Either/Or Not only/But also Just as/So Whether/Or Subordinating Conjunctions: Sweat ran down my face while I searched for my child. After, although, as, as if, because, before, even though, if, in order that, once, since, so that, than, though, unless, until, when, where, whether, while
Conjunction practice #1 Circle the conjunctions, and try to identify which type of conjunction each is. 1. I like apples and bananas. 2. You can come to the meeting as long as you don’t say anything. 3. We are losing now, but I think our team will win in the long run. 4. Both Jeremy and Joshua have red hair. 5. Keep your hand on the wound until the nurse tells you to remove it. 6. I didn’t study, so I will probably fail this quiz. 7. I am not only a daughter, but also a friend. 8. If it rains on Sunday, I will not be able to drive. 9. Neither my mother nor my father will be able to attend the parent-teacher conference.
Conjunction practice #2 Write your own sentences using the type of conjunction listed. Underline the conjunction used. 10. Coordinating 11. Correlative 12. Subordinating 13. Your choice! Label it.
Prepositions FUNCTION EXAMPLES Prepositions express relationships (in time, space, or other senses) between nouns or pronouns and other words in a sentence. Common Prepositions: About ByNear Above Between On Across DuringThrough At In Over Behind Into With We did not want to leave during the game. The contestants waited nervously for the announcement. Drive across the bridge, and go down the avenue past three stoplights.
PREPOSITIONS PRACTICE Circle or highlight all of the prepositions you can find. Feel free to just highlight the preposition at the beginning of the phrase. Francis Macomber had, half an hour before, been carried to his tent from the edge of the camp in triumph on the arms and shoulders of the cook, the personal boys, the skinner and the porters. The gun-bearers had taken no part in the demonstration. When the native boys put him down at the door of his tent, he had shaken all their hands, received their congratulations, and then gone into the tent and sat on the bed until his wife came in. She did not speak to him when she came in and he left the tent at once to wash his face and hands in the portable wash basin outside and go over to the dining tent to sit in a comfortable canvas chair in the breeze and the shade.
INTERJECTIONS FUNCTION EXAMPLES Interjections express surprise or emotion—oh, ouch, ah, hey, etc.They often stand alone as fragments, and even when interjections are part of a sentence, they do not relate grammatically to the rest of the sentence. Hey, no one said life would be easy. Whoa! Chill out, brother. Yikes! That test was difficult. Wow, I didn’t know you were going to say that. Ouch, that hurt! I don’t know but, goodness, that experience was crazy!
INTERJECTIONS PRACTICE Circle the interjections in the sentences below. 1. Hey! Keep your hands off that camera. 2. Darn, Alice is late again. 3. Gee, I really thought I would have won. 4. I think I, uh, forgot your name. Write your own sentences with interjections, expressing the following emotions: 5. Surprise 6. Hesitation 7. Pain 8. Impatience