PARTS OF SPEECH 1 The principles of the traditional classification of the English vocabulary 2 Notional and functional parts of speech. 3 The field structure of the English vocabulary. 4 New approaches to the vocabulary classification Для студентов 4 курса специальности «Английский язык» . Рекомендуется к использованию при изучении дисциплины «Теоретическая грамматика английского языка», тема «Parts of speech. Different approaches to the vocabulary classification» Составитель: Познякова Т.М.
The division of words into classes • CRITERIA: Semantic (meaning) Formal (form) derivational features a set of grammatical categories Functional (function) function in the sentence combinability
Notional and functionalparts of speech 1They are open classes 2 Thelexicalmeaningis bright and distinct 3 Theyperform certain functions in the sentence • 4 They forma "Lexical Paradigm of Nomination“ 1 They are closedsystems(includealimitednumberofmembers); 2Have a very general and weak lexical meaning • 3 Have obligatory combinability; • 4 Fulfill the function of linking and specifying words.
The "Lexical Paradigm of Nomination” • Based on derivational relations • fancy - to fancy - fanciful - fancifully" • to decide – decision – decisive – decisively. • sustained by suppletivity, both lexemic andphrasemic, • e.g.: "an end - to end -final - finally" (lexemic), • e.g.: "an end - to end -final - finally" (lexemic), • gratitude - grateful - gratefully - to express gratitude" (phrasemic). Can be of two types
Traditional approach to the vocabulary classification • Scherba: notional parts of speech (N, V, Adv, Adj, Pron, Num) Functional parts of speech (art, prep, conj, part, modal words, interj) • V.Vinogradov: notional parts of speech (N, V, Adv, Adj, Pron, Num, adlinks (statives) - alone, alive, ashore Functional: particles proper, linking particles, prepositions, conjunctions)
M. Blokh(semantico-grammatical analysis): Notional (names): N, V, Adv, Adj pronominal words (substitutes of names): pronouns, numbers, words of broad semantics (“do”, ”thing” etc. ) Functional words: prep, conj, particles, determiners etc.
Modern approaches • J. Sweet divided the vocabulary - On the morphological properties into declinables (N, Adj, V) and indeclinables (Adv, Prep, Conj, Interj). • On the basis of the syntactic functioning of definite classes of words into • nominal words (noun-words) include noun-pronouns, noun-numerals, infinitives, gerunds; • adjective words include adjective pronouns, adjective numerals, particles; • verb group includes personal forms and verbals.
Glison’s classification is based on two formal indications: morphological form and word-order There are 2 groups: word withformal indications of word-changing (N, V, Adj, Adv) and words withno such indications (N, Adj, V, Adv)Sleddadistinguishes inflectional (nominals, verbals, adjectivals, adverbials) and positionalclasses. He also adds 8 smaller classes: auxiliary verbs, determiners, prepositions conjunctions and different classes of pronouns.
O. Jespersen’s classification The theory of three ranks is based on the lexical meaning andmorphological function in the phrase. Here we speak about • primary words (Adj + N) e.g. a barking dog (dog is a primary word) • secondary words (Adj + N) - a barking dog (barking is an adjunct) • tertiary words: a furiously barking dog (furiously is a subjunct) In the nexus (I see a dog) we find an adnex(a dog is an adnex)
Nouns Verbs Adjectives Adv The field structure of the English Vocabulary