Parts of Speech and how each is used in a sentence
There are 8 Parts of Speech • Nouns THE NOUN • Plurals Plurals and Possessive Nouns • Pronouns PRONOUNS • Verbs VERBS • Adjectives ADJECTIVES • Adverbs ADVERBS • Prepositions PREPOSITIONS • Conjunctions CONJUNCTIONS • Interjections INTERJECTIONS
THE NOUN • A noun is a naming word that identifies a: • Person • Place • Thing • Quality/concept/feeling • Activity • A proper noun names a specific person, place, or thing and is almost always capitalized. • A common noun names everything else – and is usually not capitalized.
A Noun is • singular when it refers to ONE person, place, thing, quality, concept, idea, feeling or activity • plural if it refers to MORE THAN ONE • possessive if it shows ownership of another noun. An apostrophe (’) is used to show ownership
Plurals 1. Usually to form a plural, add “s” • geek geeks • hundred hundreds • rainbow rainbows • flower flowers • manager managers • Ted Teds • Smith Smiths
More rules for plurals 2. If a singular noun ends in ch, s, sh, x and z add es to form plurals • One church two churches • One mess two messes • One wash two washes • One fox two foxes
And more… 3. If a noun ends in a consonant followed by a y, change the y to i and add es • one company three companies • one family six families • one sky many skies • one buggy a dozen buggies But • If a vowel comes before the final y, just add s. • one donkey three donkeys • one monkey five monkeys • one day several days • one boy team of boys
Even more rules 4.Plurals of nouns ending in fe or f are formed by changing f to v and adding es • one knife two knives • one scarf two scarves • one wolf two wolves Exceptions • one roof two roofs • one safe two safes • one chief many chiefs
More exceptions 5. Some nouns don’t change form when making them plural • one sheep two sheep • one moose two moose • one fish two fish • one deer two deer 6. Some nouns look plural but are actually singular • news, politics, thanks, savings, physics, billiards, premises, economics 7. A collective noun names people, ideas or things as groups • team, jury, class, committee, association
Puzzling Plurals Singular Plural Singular Plural • alumnus alumni • child children • crisis crises • datum data • elf elves • foot feet • goose geese • hero heroes • index indices • louse lice • ox oxen • potato potatoes • quiz quizzes • self selves • thief thieves • thesis theses • tooth teeth • wife wives • woman women • yourself yourselves
Possessive Nouns • When one noun names a thing that belongs to another noun (dog’s biscuit), use an apostrophe to show ownership • Singular Possessive – add ’s • the computer’s keyboard = the keyboard belonging to the computer • a baby’s smile = the smile belonging to the baby • a goon’s balloon = a balloon belonging to a goon • If a singular noun ends in s or other hissing sound, add ’ or ’s • Professor Bones’ lecture or Professor Bones’s lecture • The boss’ decision or the boss’s decision • The class’ reunion or the class’s reunion
More about possessive nouns… • If a plural nouns ends in s, add an apostrophe • The two governesses’ duties • Three ships’ captains • Ten countries’ flags • All the employees’ rights • If a plural nouns does not end in s, add an apostrophe plus an s • The three children’s toys • A dozen fish’s gills • Many women’s issues • Three mice’s tails
When to use what • The city is on fire. Singular noun • The cities are on fire. Plural noun • The city’s fire department comes to the rescue. Singularpossessive noun. • The surrounding cities’fire departments all came to the rescue. Pluralpossessive noun.
Practice – Find the nouns Raindrops on roses and whiskers on kittens; Bright copper kettles and warm woolen mittens; Brown paper packages tied up with strings; These are a few of my favourite things. Cream-coloured ponies and crisp apple strudels; Doorbells and sleigh bells and schnitzel with noodles; Wild geese that fly with the moon on their wings; These are a few of my favourite things.
Check your list Raindrops on roses and whiskers on kittens Bright copperkettles and warm woolen mittens Brownpaper packages tied up with strings These are a few of my favorite things Cream colored ponies and crisp applestreudels Doorbells and sleigh bells and schnitzel with noodles Wild geese that fly with the moon on their wings These are a few of my favorite things