Life History • Born in June 15, 1902. A Danish mother and German father. • Raised as a Jew, married a Christian and converted to Christianity. • At 18, he graduated from a classical gymnasium. He studied Latin, Greek, German Literature and Ancient History. • In 1927, got training from Anna Freud on psychoanalysis. • Married to Joan in 1929, who became her research partner.
Life History • In 1933, he became the full member of Vienna Psychoanalytical Society. • Joined Yale Medical School in 1936. Studied psychological symptoms, including the lack of self-image or identity, that were related to a sense of loss of cultural tradition. • Continued Research on Development stages of Life, since 1940. He studied the lives of Martin Luther and Mahatma Gandhi of India. • Passed away in 1997.
An Epigenetic Model of Human Development • Named by Erikson, Epigenesis (epi means uponand genesis means emergence) was the first psychological theory to detail the human life cycle, from infancy to adulthood and old age; Epigenesis suggests that each element develops on top of other parts.
Stage 1- Basic Trust Vs Basic Mistrust • Age: 0 to 1 year old • Psychosocial Crisis: Trust vs. Mistrust • Virtue: Hope • Corresponds to Freud's oral stage centers around the infant's basic needs being met by the parents. • Primary Caregivers give trust or mistrust
Stage 2: Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt • Age: Toddlers, 2 to 3 years • Main Question: "Can I do things myself or must I always rely on others?" • Virtue: Will • As the child gains control over eliminative functions and motor abilities, they begin to explore their surroundings.
Stage 3: Initiative vs. Guilt • Age : Preschool, 4 to 6 years • Main Question: "Am I good or am I bad?" • Virtue: Purpose • Related Elements in Society: ideal prototypes/roles • The child is learning to master the world around him or her. • Guilt is a new emotion and is confusing to the child.
Stage 4: Industry vs. Inferiority • Age : Childhood, 7 to 12 years. • Main Question: "Am I successful or worthless?" • Virtue: Competence • Related Elements in Society: division of labor • Erikson viewed the elementary school years as critical for the development of self-confidence.
Stage 5: Identity vs. Role Confusion • Age : Adolescents, 13 to 19 years. • Main Question: "Who am I and where am I going?" • Ego quality: Fidelity • Related Elements in Society: Ideology • Child develops a sense of sexual identity. Sometimes the roles becomes confusing.
Stage 6: Intimacy vs. Isolation • Age : Young Adults, 20 to 34 years. • Main Question: "Am I loved and wanted?" or "Shall I share my life with someone or live alone?" • Ego quality: Love • Related Elements in Society: patterns of cooperation (often marriage)
Stage 7: Generativity vs. Stagnation • Age : Middle Adulthood, 35 to 65 years. • Main Question: "Will I produce something of real value?" • Virtue: Care • Related Elements in Society: parenting, educating, or other productive social involvement
Stage 8: Ego Integrity vs. Despair • Age : Seniors, 65 years onwards. • Main Question: "Have I lived a full life?" • Virtue: Wisdom