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(Bilingual Course). Microbiology. Department of Chemistry and Life Science Lecturer: Li Yong ( Email: L68116@163.com ). Chapter one The main themes of microbiology (Introduction to Microbiology). What’s on your arm skin?. chapter outline. 1.1 The scope of microbiology
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(Bilingual Course) Microbiology Department of Chemistry and Life Science Lecturer: Li Yong ( Email: L68116@163.com )
Chapter one The main themes of microbiology (Introduction to Microbiology)
chapter outline 1.1 The scope of microbiology 1.2 The impact of microbes on earth: small organisms with a giant effect 1.3 The general characteristics of microorganisms 1.4 The historical foundations of microbioloy 1.5 Taxonomy: Organizing, Classifying, and Naming Microorganisms .
Key words Microbiology/ Immunology/ epidemiology/ Biotechnology bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, and helminthes(寄生虫)/ taxonomy/ecology/ single-celled microorganisms, and even the multicelled microbes /Prokaryotes (unicellular) /eukaryotes /Eubacteria/Archaea Photosynthesis/ decomposition /Genetic engineering /bioremediation microscope /magnification/ *（一些词汇）：教材后面有相关的词汇表，大家也可以参考网络课程上的内容
Some descriptions of different branched of study within microbiology Immunology （免疫） Public health microbiology and epidemiology （公共健康与疫病） Food microbiology （食品微生物学） Agricultural microbiology （农业~) Biotechnology (生物技术） *微生物学分支学科简述
Microbial physiology Microbial genetics Microbial Morphology Virology Parasitology Branches of Microbiology Mycology Protozoology Bacteriology Microbial ecology Microbial taxonomy Molecular biology Phycology or Algology
Our world is populated by invisible creatures too small to be seen with the unaided eye. These life forms, the microbes or microorganisms, may be seen only by magnifying their image with a microscope.
question Some people think it would be great if scientists could wipe out all the microbial “bugs”! Should we do it, and why or why not? 辟谷和”喝西北风者”
1.2 The impact of microbes on earth: small organisms with a giant effect For billions of years microbes have extensively shaped the development of the earth’s habitats and the evolution of other life forms Microbes can be found nearly everywhere, from deep in the earth’s crust, to the polar ice caps and oceans, to the bodies of plants and animals．．．. *对地球巨大影响者：微生物 注释：Habitats: 生境， evolution 进化。
1.2.1 Microbial involvement in energy and nutrient flow microorganisms were photosynthesizing long before the first plants appeared. In fact, they were responsible for changing the atmosphere of the earth from one without oxygen, to one with oxygen. Today photosynthetic microorganisms (including algae) account for more than 50% of the earth’s photosynthesis, contributing the majority of the oxygen to the atmosphere. keep the earth in balance is the process of biological decomposition and nutrient recycling… *微生物在（自然）能量及营养链中的作用 注释： oxygen 氧气； decomposition 分解 腐化； nutrient 营养物质（指各种生物的必需元素等）
1.2.2 Human use of microorganisms excellent candidates for solving human problems Genetic engineering bioremediation … *人类对微生物的利用 注释：Candidate 选手，竞选者，侯选者； Genetic engineering 基因工程 ；bioremediation 生物修复
one can’t overemphasize the importance of microbiology. Society benefits from microorganisms in many ways. They are necessary for the productions of bread, cheese, beer, antibiotics, vaccines, vitamins, enzymes, and many other important products. Indeed, modern biotechnology rests upon a microbiology foundation. Microorganisms are indispensable components of our ecosystems. They make possible the cycles of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur1 that take place in terrestrials and aquatic systems2. They also are a source of nutrients at the base of all ecological food chains and webs. 注释：antibiotics 抗生素； vaccine 疫苗 enzyme 酶 indispensable 必不可少的 ecosystem 生态系统 1 C O N S; 2 陆生及水生
1.2.3 Infectious diseases and the human condition *感染性疾病与人类生活（卫生）条件
… microbes also have harmed humans and disrupted society over the millennia. Microbial diseases undoubtedly played a major role in historical events such as the decline of the Roman Empire and the conquest of the New World. In 1347 plague and black death struck Europe with brutal force. （教材文段）
“多难兴邦” －温家宝在汶川激励语 By 1351.only four years later, the plague had killed 1/3 of the population ( about 25 million people). Over the next 80 years. The disease struck again and again, eventually wiping out 75% of the European population. Some historians believe that this disaster changed the European culture and prepared the way for the Renaissance(复兴）. Plague [pleiɡ] n. 瘟疫
1.3 The general characteristics of microorganisms CELLULAR ORGANIZATION （细胞结构） A NOTE ON VIRUSES （病毒一般特点） MICROBIAL DIMENSIONS: HOW SMALL IS SMALL? （微生物视界：何谓微小？） LIFE-STYLES OF MICROORGANISMS （微生物生活方式） *微生物的一般特性 Cellular 细胞的； virus 病毒 ; Dimension 尺度； life styles 生活方式；
The Size and Cell Type of Microbes Most of the bacteria, protozoa, and fungi are single-celled microorganisms, and even the multicelled microbes do not have a great range of cell types. Viruses are not even cells, just genetic material surrounded by a protein coat and incapable of independent existence. 说明：微生物的定义，一般要求对所有已知的类别加以列举；现代微生物的定义，除了从个体微小，结构简单的角度表述外，同时强调其生活习性及实验培养特性等。请参考网络课程相关内容。
The size and cell type of microbes *以上分别为病毒、细菌、真菌、原生动物及藻类的一般大小及细胞类别
Microbial world Organisms(living) Infectious agents (non-living) Prokaryotes (unicellular) eukaryotes viruses viroids prions Eubacteria Archaea Algae (unicellular or multicellular) Fungi (unicellular or multicellular) Protozoa (unicellular) Other (multicellular organisms)
The future of microbiology is bright Microbiology is one of the most rewarding of professions, because it gives its practitioners the opportunity to be in contact with all the other natural science and thus to contribute in many different ways to the betterment of human life. *微生物学前景：为世界上回报最高的科学研究领域，与其他自然科学均有密切联系 ，在改善人类生活方面有巨大优势。
1.4 THE HISTORYICAL FOUNDATIONS OF MICROBIOLOGY * *微生物学的奠基 微生物发现和微生物学建立的历史介绍，主要是建立在几位划时代微生物学巨人的经典实验与发现上的。这些实验在微生物学中具有重要地位,应该认真体会和学习。
NEW words Spontaneous（自发）；fermentation（发酵）；Pasteurization巴氏消毒法；contamination （污染）； bacterial endospores （细菌芽孢）；mortality死亡率Prophylaxis 预防agar（琼脂）, petri dish(培养皿), media（培养基） bacterial filter(细菌过滤器) ； autoclave（灭菌器）； Koch’s postulates； organic and inorganic matter ； antibiotic； penicillin ；significance（显著性）； classification（分类）, nomenclature（命名法）, and identification.
NEW words Staphylococcus aureus金黄色葡萄球菌； Lacrobacillus（乳杆菌属）； Giardia lamblia（贾第虫）； intestinal infection （肠道感染） Phylogeny 系统发生, 发展史 Phylogenetic Trees（系统发育树）； ribosomal（核糖体）ribonucleic acid (rRNA) tuberculosis 肺结核 chloride of lime 漂白粉
The discovery of microorganisms The spontaneous generation conflict 有关微生物学的发展中，各种争论及各位科学家的奠基性的工作，需要大家认真体会，这是微生物的基本理论训练中的必要知识与必要学习过程。 The recognition of microbial role in disease The discovery of microbial effects on organic and inorganic matter The development of microbiology in this century
The Discovery of Microorganism Even before microbes were seen, some investigator suspected their existence and responsibility for disease.(Lucrtius, Roman philosopher,about 98-55 B.C. and Girolamo Fracastoro(1478-1553）, physician 内科医生） suggested that disease was caused by invisible living creatures. The earliest microscopic observations appeared to have been made between 1625 and 1630 on bees and weevil(象鼻虫）by the Italian Francesco Stelluti, using a microscope probably supplied by Galileo. *微生物发现——史前期。
1.4.1 THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE MICROSCOPE: “SEEING IS BELIVEVING” 显微镜的研究：眼见为实
Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) Antony van Leeuwenhoek was an unlikely scientist…Holland, he came from a family of tradesmen, earned his living as a draper(布料商） and haberdasher（dealer of men’s clothing and accessories(男服及配件经销商） had no fortune, received no higher education or university degrees, and knew no languages other than his native Dutch. This would have been enough to exclude him from the scientific community of his time completely.
Yet with skill, diligence, an endless curiosity, and an open mind free of the scientific dogma(教条） of his day, Leeuwenhoek succeeded in making some of the most important discoveries in the history of biology. It was he who discovered bacteria, free-living and parasitic microscopic protests(原生动物), sperm cells, blood cells, microscopic nematodes(线虫) and rotifers(轮虫), and much more. His researches, which were widely circulated, opened up an entire world of microscopic life to the awareness of scientists.
lens Object being viewed A drawing of one of the microscopes showing the lens a; mounting pin b; and focusing screws c and d. adjusting screws Leeuwenhoek’s drawings of bacteria from the human mouth.
Leeuwenhock spend much of his spare time constructing simple microscope composed of double convex glass lenses held between two silver plates. his simple microscope could amplify the object being viewed 50 – 300 times. Between 1673-1723, he wrote a series of letters to the Royal Society of London describing the microbes he observed from the samples of rainwater, and human mouth.
. . my work, which I've done for a long time, was not pursued（追逐） in order to gain the praise I now enjoy, but chiefly from a craving（渴望） after knowledge, which I notice resides in me more than in most other men. And therewithal（于是乎）, whenever I found out anything remarkable, I have thought it my duty to put down my discovery on paper, so that all ingenious people might be informed thereof（相关）. Antony van Leeuwenhoek. Letter of June 12, 1716
1.4.2 The Establishment of theScientific Method *微生物学：科学方法的建立
现代科学的基本要求：假设-推论法 假设被放弃 可能证明无根据
公认的微生物学奠基人 Louis Pasteur (1822 – 1895) In the field of observation, chance favors only prepared minds. ------ Louis Pasteur Louis Pasteur working in his laboratory
Pasteur’s contributions: • Pasteur (1857) demonstrated that lactic acidfermentation is due to the activity of micro-organisms • Pasteur (1861) conflict over spontaneous generation – birth of microbiology as a science • Pasteur (1881) developed anthrax（炭疽热） vaccine（疫苗） • Pasteurization（巴斯德杀菌法） *作为一个公认的微生物学奠基人，路易斯.巴斯德的贡献很多，以上为影响巨大的代表 性工作，学习他的这些工作经历及解决的问题对理解微生物的基本知识很有帮助。 以下仅以他在否定“自然发生学说”中的睿智工作为例说明。
Spontaneous generation – that living organisms could develop from nonliving or decomposing matter. Thespontaneous generationconflict 很早以前,人们相信自生说,生命有机体能够从无生命和物质发展而来.甚至伟大的亚里士多德也认为一些简单的无脊椎动物能够自然发生.
Spontaneous generation – that living organisms could develop from nonliving or decomposing matter. From earliest time, people had believed in spontaneous generation. Even the great Aristotle(384-322B.C.) thought some of the simpler invertebrates could arise by the spontaneous generation. This view finally was challenged by Italian physician Francesco Redi(1626-1697), who carried out a series of experiments on decaying meat and its ability to produce maggots spontaneously. Redi placed meat in three containers. One was uncovered, a second was covered with paper, and the third was covered with a fine gauze(纱布) that would exclude flies. What would happen? Thespontaneous generationconflict-那一场“愚笨”的争论?
Flies laid their eggs on the uncovered meat and maggot developed. The other two meat did not produce maggots spontaneously. However, flies were attracted to the gauze-covered container and laid their eggs on the gauze; these eggs produced maggots. Thus the generation of maggots by decaying meat resulted from the presence of fly eggs, and meat did not spontaneously generate maggots as previously believed. Similar experiments by others helped discredit the theory for large organisms.
Leeuwenhoek’s discovery of microorganisms renewed(复兴) the controversy. Some proposed that microbes arose by spontaneous generation even though larger organisms did not! In 1748 the English priest John Needham (1713-1799) “ boiled mutton broth and then tightly stoppered(塞) the flasks(长颈瓶). Eventually many of the flasks became cloudy and contained microorganisms. He thought organic matter contained a vital force that could confer the properties of life on nonliving matter.
A few years later the Italian priest and naturalist Lazzaro Spallanzani( 1729-1799) improved on Needham’s experimental design by first sealing glass flasks that contained water and seeds. The supporter of spontaneous generation maintained that “heating the air in sealed flasks destroyed it ability to support life!”
If you are one of these scientists who would not believe in Spontaneous generation theory, and was involved in this controversial topic, what are you about to do? Several investigators attempted to counter such arguments. Theodore Schwann(1810-1882) allowed air to enter a flask containing a sterile nutrient solution after the air had passed through a red-hot tube. The flask remained sterile. Subsequently Geoge Friedrich Schroder and theodor von Dushch allowed the air to enter a flask of heat-sterilized medium after it had passed through sterile cotton wool. No growth occurred in the medium even though the air had not been heated.
Despite those experiments the French naturalist Felix Pouchet claimed in 1859 to have carried out experiments conclusively proving that microbial growth could occur without air contamination(污染). This claim provoked Louis Pasteur(1822-1895) to settle the matter once for all.
The flasks’ openings were freely open to the air but were curved so that gravity would cause any airborne dust particles to deposit(堆积)in the lower part of the necks. Pasteur’s swan neck flasks used in his experiments on the spontaneous generation of microorganisms
Conclusion: Microorganisms are not spontaneously generated from inanimate matter, but are produced by other microorganisms. The English physicist John Tyndall dealt a final blow to spontaneous generation in 1877 by demonstrating that dust did indeed carry germs and that if dust was absent, broth remained sterile even if directly exposed to air. During the course of his studies. Tyndall provided evidence for the existence of exceptionally heat-resistant forms of bacteria. Working independently, the German botanist Ferdinand Cohn(1828—1898) discovered the existence of heat-resistant bacterial endospores(芽孢).
1.4.3 The Development of Medical Microbiology • The discovery of spores and sterilization • The development of aseptic techniques • The discovery of pathogens and the germ theory of disease *医学微生物学的发展
The Discovery of Spores and Sterilization 英国物理学家John Tyndall (1820-1893)在1877年通过实验？ 证实灰尘的确携带有微生物,如果没有灰尘肉汤保持无菌,即使直接暴露于空气中也是如此。并且some of the microbes in the dust and air have very high heat resistance and the particularly vigorous treatment is required to destroy them. Ferdinand Cohn a German botanist (德国植物学家） 因此我们可以说，巴斯德和丁铎尔的工作，最终澄清了自生说的争论。 而这更促进了“灭菌”（sterile: completely free of all life forms including spores and viruses.)这一手段及概念的产生。
The importance of microorganisms in disease was not immediately obvious to people, and it took many years for scientist to establish the connection between microorganisms and illness. 微生物在疾病中的重要性人们并不是一开始就明白的，经过许多科学家们才确定了微生物和疾病之间的关系。而这种认识在很大程度上取决于研究它们的新技术的发展与突破。
The Development of Aseptic Techniques 当时大多数人所相信的是：疾病是由于超自然的力量，或是“ poisonous vapors”(瘴气）和存在于体内的4种液体之间的不平衡引起（即四种液体：血液、粘液、黄色胆汁“怒气症”、黑胆汁“忧郁症”）。 而19世纪初，病原理论的支持开始积聚（replaced by the knowledge and sometimes even the fear of “germs”) Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes the American physician and Hugarian Dr. Ignaz Semmelweis 的研究有开创性的见解。