The Developing Person Through the Life Span 8e by Kathleen Stassen Berger Chapter 17– Emerging Adulthood: Biosocial Development PowerPoint Slidesdeveloped by Martin Wolfger and Michael James Ivy Tech Community College-Bloomington Reviewed by Raquel Henry Lone Star College, Kingwood
Emerging Adulthood The period between the ages of 18 and 25, which is now widely thought of as a separate developmental stage.
Growth and Strength Strong and Active Bodies • Emerging adults are usually in good health. • Traditionally, ages 18 and 25 were a time for hard physical work and childbearing. • Physical work and parenthood are no longer expected of every young adult in the 21st century.
Growth and Strength • Because of food availability, most emerging adults have reached full height (girls usually by age 16, boys by age 18). • Muscle growth and fat accumulation continue into the early 20s, when women attain adult breast and hip size and men reach full shoulder width and upper-arm strength. • Death from disease almost never occurs during emerging adulthood.
Bodies Designed for Health • By age 20, the immune system is well-developed • Usually, blood pressure is normal, teeth develop no new cavities, heart rate is steady, the brain is fully grown, and lung capacity is as large as it will ever be. • Senescence • The process of aging, whereby the body becomes less strong and efficient. • Begins in late adolescence
Bodies in Balance Homeostasis • The adjustment of all the body’s systems to keep physiological functions in a state of equilibrium. • As the body ages, it takes longer for these adjustments to occur, so it becomes harder for older bodies to adapt to stress. • Nutrition and exercise underlie health at every age.
Unused Potential • Organ reserve • The capacity of organs to allow the body to cope with stress, via extra, unused functioning ability. • Maximum strength potential • Begins to decline by age 25 • Fifty-year-olds retain 90% of muscle reserve they had at age 20
Sexual Activity • The sexual-reproductive system is especially vigorous during emerging adulthood. • The sex drive is powerful, infertility is rare, orgasm is frequent, and birth is easy, with fewer complications in the early 20s than at any other time. • Sexual-reproductive characteristics are produced by sex hormones, which peak in both sexes at about age 20.
Growth and Strength • With frequent intercourse and without contraception, the average woman in her early 20s becomes pregnant within three months. • Globalization, advanced technology, and modern medicine have combined to produce effective contraception, available in almost every nation. • As fewer infants die, people no longer need to begin childbearing before age 20 or have four or more children simply to ensure that some children will survive.
Growth and Strength • Advances in contraception have reduced the birth rate and have also increased the rate of sexual activity, especially among unmarried adults. • Globally, emerging adults have fewer babies but engage in more sexual activity than older adults (married or not) or than people their own age once did. • Half of all emerging adults in the United States have had at least one sexually transmitted infection (STI).
Emotional Stress • One consequence of current sexual patterns may be emotional stress as relationships begin and end. • Attitudes about the purpose of sex (Laumann & Michael): • Reproduction • Relationship • Recreation • If partners have differing ideas about the purpose of sex or the nature of gender, emotional pain and frustration can occur.
Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) • STIs have always been present but the rate has reached epidemic proportions due to sexual patterns. • Best way to prevent STIs is lifelong monogamy. • Worldwide, globalization fuels every contagious disease.
Psychopathology • Incidence of psychopathology increases in emerging adulthood. • Rate of serious mental illness is almost double that for adults over age 25. • Diathesis-stress model • View that mental disorders are produced by the interaction of genetics (diathesis) and a stressful environment and life events.
Mood Disorders Bipolar Disorder • May begin in childhood but becomes more severe in adulthood. Depression • Most common mood disorder • A loss of interest or pleasure for 2 weeks or more. • May be rooted in imbalances in neurotransmitters and hormones
Anxiety Disorders • Evident in ¼ of all U.S. residents below 25 • Panic attacks, PTSD, and OCD • More common, worldwide than depression • Age and genetics shape the symptoms • Hikikomori • Common among young adults in Japan • Victims isolate themselves for months or years
Schizophrenia • About 1% of adults have schizophrenia • Disorganized and bizarre thoughts, delusions, hallucinations, and emotions • Risk factors: genetic, malnutrition when brain is developing, social pressure. • Symptoms usually begin in adolescence
Exercise • Reduces blood pressure, strengthens the heart & lungs. • Makes depression, osteoporosis, heart disease, arthritis and some cancers less likely. • Those who are not fit during emerging adulthood are 4 times more likely to have diabetes and high blood pressure 15 years later.
Eating Well • At every stage of life, diet affects future development • Set point • A certain body weight that a person’s homeostatic processes strive to maintain. • Body mass index (BMI) • The ratio of a person’s weight in kilograms divided by their height in meters squared.
Taking Risks • Emerging adulthood is marked by a greater willingness to take risks of all sorts, not just sexual ones. • Young adults enjoy danger, drive without seat belts, carry guns, try addictive drugs.
Taking Risks • Edgework • Occupations, recreational activities, or other ventures that involve a degree of risk or danger. • The prospect of “living on the edge” makes edgework compelling to some individuals. • Extreme sports • Forms of recreation that include apparent risk of injury or death and that are attractive and thrilling as a result.
Drug Abuse • Drug abuse • The ingestion of a drug to the extent that it impairs the user’s biological or psychological well-being. • Drug addiction • A condition of drug dependence in which the absence of the given drug from the individual’s system produces a drive—physiological, biological, or both—to ingest more of the drug.
Drug Abuse • Drug abuse is particularly common among those who die violently. • In the U.S., between the ages of 15 and 25, almost 1 male in every 100 dies violently, through suicide, homicide, or a motor-vehicle accident. • About 4 times as many young men as young women commit suicide or die in motor-vehicle accidents, and 6 times as many are murdered.
A Way to Curb Alcohol Abuse in College Social norms approach • A method of reducing risky behavior among emerging adults that is based on their desire to follow social norms. • This approach publicizes survey results to make emerging adults aware of the actual prevalence of various behaviors within their peer group.