The Developing Person Through the Life Span 8eby Kathleen Stassen Berger • Chapter 2 Theories of Development • What Theories Do • Grand Theories • Newer Theories
Developmental Theory Developmental Theory • a group of ideas, assumptions, generalizations that interpret and illuminate the thousands of observations made about human growth • provides a framework for understanding how and why people change as they grow older.
What Theories Do • Theories produce a hypothesis. • Theories generate discoveries. • Theories offer practical guidance. … Theories are NOT facts.
Grand Theories Grand Theories of the Early 20th Century: • Psychoanalytic Theory • Behavioral Theory • Cognitive Theory Newer Theories: • Sociocultural Theory • Universal Perspective: Humanism and Evolutionary Theory
Psychoanalytic Theory • A theory of human development that holds that irrational, unconscious drives and motives, often originating in childhood, underlie human behavior. • Psychoanalytic theory originated with Sigmund Freud (1856– 1939)
Psychoanalytic Theory Freud’s Psychosexual Stages of Development
Psychoanalytic Theory Erik Erikson (1902–1994) • Described eight developmental stages, each characterized by a challenging developmental crisis. • His first five stages build on Freud’s theory; but he also described three adult stages.
Psychoanalytic Theory Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development
Behaviorism • A theory of human development that studies observable behavior. • Also called “learning theory” as it describes the laws and processes by which behavior is learned. • Conditioning -the processes by which responses become linked to particular stimuli and learning takes place. • Classical Conditioning • Operant Conditioning • Social Learning
Behaviorism Classical conditioning - Ivan Pavlov(1849-1936) • (also called respondent conditioning), a process in which a person or animal learns to associate a neutral stimulus with a meaningful stimulus, gradually reacting to the neutral stimulus with the same response as to the meaningful one. • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HZPXVb0W3Hc
Behaviorism Operant Conditioning
Behaviorism Operant conditioning - B.F. Skinner(1904–1990) • (also called instrumental conditioning)a learning process in which a particular action is followed either by something desired or by something unwanted. • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y-g2OmRXb0g • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AK32448CgKE
Behaviorism Social LearningTheory-Albert Bandura An extension of behaviorism that emphasizes the influence that other people have over a person’s behavior. Modeling- people learn by observing other people and then copying them. Self-Efficacy- how effective people think they are when it comes to changing themselves or altering their social context. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YclZBhn40hU
Cognitive Theory • Jean Piaget (1896–1980) • Thoughts and expectations profoundly affect action. • Focuses on changes in how people think over time. • Cognitive development occurs over four age-related periods • Constructivist Perspective of Learning
Cognitive Theory http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TRF27F2bn-A
Cognitive Theory Cognitive Equilibrium • A state of mental balance, no confusion • Interpret new ideas through past ideas • Easy equilibrium not always possible • If new experience is not understandable, cognitive disequilibrium can occur • Assimilation • Accommodation
Cognitive Theory Information Processing • Not a single theory but a framework • Inspired by how a computer works • How people think before they respond • How attention and thought affects mental function • Relationship between one person’s thinking and another’s
Newer Theories Sociocultural Theory • Leo Vygotsky (1896-1934) • Development results from a person’s interaction with their social and cultural surroundings • Culture is integral to development • Apprenticeship in thinking: how cognition is “taught” by the older and more skilled
Sociocultural Theory Zone of proximal development • Made up of the skills, knowledge, and concepts that the learner is close to acquiring Learner needs help to master Learning must be individualized
The Universal Perspective Humanism • Abraham Maslow (1908-1970), Hierarchy of Needs • Carl Rogers (1902-1987) • Stresses the potential of humans for good • All people have the same needs • Emphasize what people have in common
The Universal Perspective Evolutionary Theory • Based on Darwin’s ideas • Humans are more alike than different • Human development influenced by drives to survive and reproduce • Selective adaptation: process by which people adapt to their environment
Eclectic Perspective Eclectic perspective • The approach taken by most developmentalists • Aspects of each of the various theories of development are applied rather than adhering exclusively to one