The Developing Person Through the Life Span 8eby Kathleen Stassen Berger Chapter 2– Theories of Development PowerPoint Slidesdeveloped by Martin Wolfger and Michael James Ivy Tech Community College-Bloomington Reviewed by Raquel Henry Lone Star College, Kingwood
What Theories Do Developmental Theory • a systematic statement of principles and generalizations • provides a framework for understanding how and why people change as they grow older.
Grand Theories • Includes Psychoanalytic, Behavioral, and Cognitive theories. • All three are comprehensive, enduring, and widely applied.
Psychoanalytic Theory • A theory of human development that holds that irrational, unconscious drives and motives, often originating in childhood, underlie human behavior. • Psychoanalytic theory originated with Sigmund Freud (1856– 1939)
Psychoanalytic Theory Erickson’s Ideas • Erik Erikson (1902–1994) • Described eight developmental stages, each characterized by a challenging developmental crisis. • His first five stages build on Freud’s theory; but he also described three adult stages.
Behaviorism • A theory of human development that studies observable behavior. • Also called learning theory as it describes the laws and processes by which behavior is learned. • Conditioning -the processes by which responses become linked to particular stimuli and learning takes place.
Behaviorism Classical conditioning - Ivan Pavlov(1849-1936) • (also called respondent conditioning), a process in which a person or animal learns to associate a neutral stimulus with a meaningful stimulus, gradually reacting to the neutral stimulus with the same response as to the meaningful one.
Behaviorism Operant conditioning - B.F. Skinner(1904–1990) • (also called instrumental conditioning)a learning process in which a particular action is followed either by something desired or by something unwanted.
Operant Conditioning Reinforcement • Increasing the probability of a response • A technique for conditioning behavior Examples: -Food for a hungry animal -A pat on the back for a job well done -An A for a well written paper
Behaviorism Social LearningTheory-Albert Bandura(b. 1925) • An extension of behaviorism that emphasizes the influence that other people have over a person’s behavior. • Modeling- people learn by observing other people and then copying them. • Self-efficacy- how effective people think they are when it comes to changing themselves or altering their social context.
Cognitive Theory • Thoughts and expectations profoundly affect action. • Focuses on changes in how people think over time. • Jean Piaget (1896–1980)
Cognitive Theory Cognitive Equilibrium • A state of mental balance, no confusion • Interpret new ideas through past ideas • Needed for intellectual advancement • Easy equilibrium not always possible • If new experience is not understandable, cognitive disequilibrium can occur
Cognitive Theory Two types of cognitive adaptation: • Assimilation - new experiences are interpreted to fit into, or assimilate with, old ideas • Accommodation - old ideas are restructured to include, or accommodate, new experiences
Cognitive Theory Information Processing • Not a single theory but a framework • Inspired by how a computer works • How people think before they respond • How attention and thought affects mental function • Relationship between one person’s thinking and another’s
Newer Theories Sociocultural Theory • Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) • Development results from a person’s interaction with their social and cultural surroundings • Culture is integral to development • Apprenticeship in thinking: how cognition is “taught” by the older and more skilled
Sociocultural Theory Zone of proximal development • Made up of the skills, knowledge, and concepts that the learner is close to acquiring • Learner needs help to master • Learning must be individualized
The Universal Perspective Humanism • Abraham Maslow (1908-1970), Carl Rogers (1902-1987) • Stresses the potential of humans for good • All people have the same needs • Emphasize what people have in common
The Universal Perspective Evolutionary Theory • Based on Darwin’s ideas • Very controversial in psychological circles • Humans are more alike than different • Human development influenced by drives to survive and reproduce • Selective adaptation: process by which people adapt to their environment
What Theories Contribute • Eclectic perspective • The approach taken by most developmentalists • Aspects of each of the various theories of development are applied rather than adhering exclusively to one