The Developing Person Through the Life Span 8e by Kathleen Stassen Berger Chapter 7 – The First Two Years: Psychosocial Development PowerPoint Slidesdeveloped by Martin Wolfger and Michael James Ivy Tech Community College-Bloomington Reviewed by Raquel Henry Lone Star College, Kingwood Further Edited by Laura Petrolle
For your consideration… • Salovey, Mayer, Goldman, Turvey, and Palfai: "People in good moods are better at inductive reasoning and creative problem solving."--From Emotion, Disclosure, and Health, 1995 • Peter Salovey: “I think in the coming decade we will see well-conducted research demonstrating that emotional skills and competencies predict positive outcomes at home with one’s family, in school, and at work. The real challenge is to show that emotional intelligence matters over-and-above psychological constructs that have been measured for decades like personality and IQ. I believe that emotional intelligence holds this promise."--From “Emotional What?” EQ Today
Foundations of Psychosocial Development • Personality: relatively consistent combination of emotions, temperament, thought and behavior • Emotions: subjective reactions to experience associated with behavioral/physio changes • Self-conscious emotions • Self-awareness • Self-evaluative emotions • Empathy • Temperament: disposition, characteristic pattern of approaching experiences/reacting to situations
Emotional Development first 2 years • Infants show stages of emotion development • Simple to complex • Similar sequence worldwide • Like gross motor development • Like language development • This suggests that emotional development is strongly mediated by genes. Note: The older a child gets, the more influence there is from environment.
Emotional Development Infants’ Emotions • Smiling and Laughing • Social smile (6 weeks): Evoked by viewing human faces • Laughter (3 to 4 months): Often associated with curiosity • Anger • First expressions at around 6 months • Healthy response to frustration • Sadness • Indicates withdrawal and is accompanied by increased production of cortisol • Stressful experience for infants
Emotional Development • Fear:Emerges at about 9 months in response to people, things, or situations • Why now?
Dynamic Systems @ 9 mo: • Emotionaldevelopment: Fear emerges at 9 months: What else? • Motor development (crawling/walking) leads to new experiences. • Cognitive development leads to new affordances- understandings • Emotional, Motor, and Cognitive development all influence each other! • Genes orchestrate this process • Environment – shapes it • Bi-directional, complicated!
Emotional Development • Stranger wariness: • Infant frightened by unfamiliar person • Separation anxiety: • Upset when familiar caregiver leaves. • If it remains strong after age 3, it may be considered an emotional disorder.
Emotional Development Toddlers’ Emotions • Emotions get hooked to fewer events. • Infants more discriminating • Learns which emotions are “OK” (culture/family) • Self-regulation emotions appear: pride, shame, embarrassment, guilt • Require an awareness of other people • culture & family
Emotional Development • Self-awareness • The realization that you exist separate from others. • First 4 months: Infants may see themselves as part of their mothers.
Emotional Development Mirror Recognition • Rouge test (M. Lewis & Brooks, 1978) • Babies aged 9–24 months looked into a mirror after a dot of rouge had been put on their noses. • None of those younger than 12 months old reacted as if they knew the mark was on them. • ~18 months showed self-awareness by touching their own noses with curiosity. Show clip
Emotional Self-regulation • Directly connected to maturation of the of the FRONTAL LOBE ( esp. anterior cingulategyrus) • This area directs attention. • Emotion regulation = Attention control • (remember affordances from IP model)
Temperament • Inborn differences between people in • emotions • activity • self-regulation • is epigenetic: BOTH genes and parenting/family environment. Temperament = Infant personality
Temperamental Patterns • New York Longitudinal Study ----easy ----difficult ----slow to warm-up *Goodness of fit *how much is biological? How much is cultural?
Different studies find different dimensions • Fox et al. found three types: • Exuberant • Negative • inhibited Additional findings: • Parenting practices are crucial, temperament can change or be changed
Goodness of Fit Parental adjustment to infant temperament: = goodness of fit. (p. 187) e.g. Inhibited/fearful children: treated w/ sensitivity, encouraged, not forced… Can decrease inhibition… Extremely active children can learn self-regulation.
T/F Temperament is basically infant personality. T The “constitutionally based” part of temperament refers to the genetic influence over a child’s basic nature. T A child’s Temperament can influence her social environment. T A child’s Temperament is affected by her social environment. T It is a two way street. T Parents can make allowances for the temperament of their child so the child is comfortable and secure and then work to encourage traits that will help them later on. This is called “make em fit” F “goodness of”
NEW TOPIC: ATTACHMENT THEORY Focus on: The development of social bonds. Relationship quality in the first two years sets the stage for a lifetime of relationships. Inner Working model Attachment
Developmental Issues in Infancy • Basic Trust vs. Mistrust ****a sense of reliability in people/objects*** Central feeding/abandonment If not hope, the withdrawal HOW DOES THIS FUNCTION…………..
Question? • What role might a sense of hope (ego adaptive strength-prime adaptive ego quality) or withdrawal (core pathology) play in the enactment of life roles such as friend, teacher, partner?
Toddlerhood Tasks • AUTONOMY: • Development drives desire to seek independence • Erikson 2nd stage devtpsychosocial:18mths-3 years: autonomy vs. shame/doubt: achieve balance b/n self determination and control by others develop will or compulsion • Central tasks of exploration/toilet-training • SOCIALIZATION: process of developing habits, skills, values, and motives shared by responsible, productive members of society; first step: compliance with parental expectations translate to societal standards, rests on internalization of these standards (accept as own standards of conduct) not just to avoid punish or gain reward but adhere to own internalized standards
First Relationships form a child’s Inner Working Model (IWM): = a “model” of: what to expect from other people. (esp. trust) the value of the self. (self esteem) social rules/communication
Working Model cont. Set of basic assumptions about self and others. “working” = always being modified Model = blueprint (guide, suggestions…) The IWM is cognitive The IWM IS NOT CONSCIOUS! (remember Freud, ego develops later, ego is consciousness) (develops in first two years)
Social skills: Face (emotion) reading Self-regulation Emotion regulation Communication skills- tone, face, words. These skills are part of the IWM. social ‘language.’
IWM: Predicts: If I smile, will they smile? If I spill milk, will their voices be warm or harsh? Will they look at me? Am I safe? Will they help me? Am I OK? Am I valuable? Do they listen to me? Am I loved? Can I say no? Can I get what I want? If I am angry- will they be angry too? If I get hurt will they yell? If I am happy will they laugh too? The answers to these questions are constructed over thousands of interactions with caregivers. It is all about emotion.
Attachment: An emotional bond that a child forms with a specific other person. Does not have to be mother. No “my baby” link is found. Forms in first two years (takes two years) Creates “Proximity Seeking Behaviors” & “Contact Maintaining Behaviors” On the part of BOTH baby and “attachee” e.g. Baby cries, father walks in, reaches out (PSB) Baby clings, father cradles, pats, talks…. (CMB) Rewarding for both parties!
Developing Trust • ATTACHMENT: reciprocal enduring tie between two people, infant/caregiver, each contribute to quality of relationship • Strange Situation: Ainsworth lab technique study infant attachment; secure, avoidant, ambivalent • Stranger anxiety/separation anxiety-is adaptive to a degree
Synchrony (p. 180) Synchrony = coordinated interaction, attunement, “dance.” Mutual imitation: baby gets feedback. Baby has influence. Both parties are responsive Play is important (positive and warm). playful interactions by both partners Over time the dance becomes more elaborate. Over time words are added.
Synchrony x3 important qualities: Caregiver warmth Caregiver consistency Caregiver responsiveness (reading baby) By the way, some babies are hard to read! The quality of parent/child synchrony : Programs the “working model” Determines the nature of “attachment” Secure or insecure
When Synchrony Disappears • Experiments using the still-face technique • If adult keeps his or her face unmoving and expressionless • Babies get very upset • Conclusions: • A parent’s responsiveness to an infant aids psychological and biological development • Infants’ brains need social interaction to develop to their fullest
Secure attachment: (type B) Caregiver Provides a “secure base” for infant. Baby can explore- feels safe Baby feels distress when c-giver leaves, comfort on his/her return. Insecure attachment: C-giver is not always a secure base. Baby feels anxiety, clingy, fear…etc… X3 kinds of insecure attachment
Insecure attachment X 3 types 1. Avoidant: Infant ignores caregivers departure and arrival 2. Ambivalent: (ambi = two; valence = direction) Goes both ways Both resists and seeks contact. Cries for comfort, then acts angry. Love/hate; clingy- then pushy. Disorganized Bizarre behavior- kissing, hitting, staring/freezing, pinching self etc.
Measuring Attachment • Strange Situation • A laboratory procedure for measuring attachment by evoking infants’ reactions to the stress of various adults’ comings and goings in an unfamiliar playroom. • Key behaviors to observe: • Exploration of the toys. A secure toddler plays happily. • Reaction to the caregiver’s departure. A secure toddler misses the caregiver. • Reaction to the caregiver’s return. A secure toddler welcomes the caregiver’s reappearance.
Note: Children can and often do change “attachment” status. Usually for the better. It takes years to develop attachment relationship. Children can form attachment to anyone- good relationship w/ one caregiver can “protect” from poor relationship w/ another.
Secure Uses caregiver as a secure base for exploration. Protests caregiver's departure and seeks proximity and is comforted on return, returning to exploration. May be comforted by the stranger but shows clear preference for the caregiver. Responds appropriately, promptly and consistently to needs. Caregiver has successfully formed a secure parental attachment bond to the child. Ambivalent/Resistant Unable to use caregiver as a secure base, seeking proximity before separation occurs. Distressed on separation with ambivalence, anger, reluctance to warm to caregiver and return to play on return. Preoccupied with caregiver's availability, seeking contact but resisting angrily when it is achieved. Not easily calmed by stranger. In this relationship, the child always feels anxious because the caregiver's availability is never consistent. Inconsistent between appropriate and neglectful responses. Generally will only respond after increased attachment behavior from the infant.
Avoidant Little affective sharing in play. Little or no distress on departure, little or no visible response to return, ignoring or turning away with no effort to maintain contact if picked up. Treats the stranger similarly to the caregiver. The child feels that there is no attachment; therefore, the child is rebellious and has a lower self-image and self-esteem. Little or no response to distressed child. Discourages crying and encourages independence. Disorganized Stereotypies on return such as freezing or rocking. Lack of coherent attachment strategy shown by contradictory, disoriented behaviors such as approaching but with the back turned. Frightened or frightening behavior, intrusiveness, withdrawal, negativity, role confusion, affective communication errors and maltreatment. Very often associated with many forms of abuse towards the child.
Infant Responses in strange situation classify attachment relationship status (x4) 1. secure (65% US 1 year olds) (B) exploresw/ mom upset at her leaving comforted upon return eye contact, “snuggling” etc. Parenting: Synchrony: warm, responsive, and consistent Parents low stress Parent has IWM of secure attachment
Ambivalent (~15%) (C) reunion behavior is ambivalent (ambi = two; valent = direction). seeks comfort then rejects comfort. Happy then angry does not explore w/ mom present (mom not a secure base) stranger wary Parenting: inconsistent, not “trustworthy” warm then cold- unpredictable
avoidant: (~15%) (A) low exploring low distress w/ mom gone avoid eye contact low reunion comfort seeking Parenting: rejecting or intrusive; over stimulating or unresponsive No comfort in caregiver
4. Disorganized (~7%) (D) Reunion behavior bizarre Freeze, run away Disorganized (no clear strategy for social interaction) Sometimes inappropriately affectionate w/ stranger Parenting: Frightening or Frightened (overwhelmed)
Disruptions to attachment can be corrected Baby responds to most recent mom. Baby can “create” the mom he/she needs. Baby can find security in others.
Attachment affects: cognitive development (exploration, language, etc.) Social development (see working-model) self evaluations (esteem) Sense of “agency” (can-do attitude- developed by exploring; efficacy) Note: Seems contradictory but securely attached children are tougher than children “toughened” by cold parents.
Social Referencing Looking to others for cues What to feel How to interpret a situation Baby falls down. Looks at mom. She laughs (noticing that this is not a serious fall). Baby laughs. Baby falls down. Looks at mom. Mom shows fear! Baby cries.