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Imperialism. Bell Quiz: Use Pages 342-345. What piece of land did the U.S. purchase in 1867 AND how much did it cost? What were the only 2 African countries NOT taken over by European nations by the early 1900’s? What was Hawaii’s main trade product in the mid 19 th century?
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Bell Quiz: Use Pages 342-345 What piece of land did the U.S. purchase in 1867 AND how much did it cost? What were the only 2 African countries NOT taken over by European nations by the early 1900’s? What was Hawaii’s main trade product in the mid 19th century? What interest would Sanford B. Dole have in acquiring Hawaii? Why did U.S. military and political leaders want to annex Hawaii?
Bell Quiz Answers Bought Alaska from the Russians for $7.2 million (two cents an acre). Ethiopia and Liberia. Sugar. Dole’s family will later own the Dole Food Company. Military and political leaders wanted to build a naval base on the island so we would have a refueling station for our naval ships.
What is Imperialism? • Imperialism: The policy in which nations extend their economic, political, or military control over weaker territories.
Why and what? Manifest Destiny: American belief that we were destined by God to expand from the east coast to the west coast. Imperialism: Policy in which stronger nations extend their economic policies to weaker ones. How? Bullying techniques.
4 Factors that drove Americans to Imperialism 1. Economic Competition among industrial nations. 2. Political and Military Competition 3. Belief in the Racial and Cultural superiority of Anglo-Saxons (Caucasians) 4. Manifest Destiny: Belief that the U.S. is destined by God for greatness.
Admiral Alfred T. Mahan Sir Alfred Mahan • President of the Naval War College • He was a professor at the United States Military Academy President of the Naval War College in Newport, Rhode Island. Wrote a book called “The Influence of Sea Power Upon History. Encouraged the U.S. to modernize and increase the size of its navy in order to become a world power.
The Influence of Sea Power Upon History 1660-1783, Urges U.S. to: • Build a strong navy to defend peacetime shipping lanes. • Acquire strategically located bases where U.S. fleets could refuel. • Develop a modern fleet. • Establish Naval Base in the Caribbean. • Acquire Hawaii and other Pacific Islands. • Build a Canal in Panama.
The “Great White Fleet” • In response to Mahan the U.S. builds 9 new steel cruisers between 1883-1890. • The U.S. Navy, became 5th in the world in naval power by 1898, by 1900 they were 3rd in the world.
Justification for Racism *Social Darwinism (Herbert Spencer): Applied Charles Darwin’s “survival of the fittest” theory to the societies in the world. Human progress resulted from the triumph of advanced cultures over their inferior competitors. *Studied and evaluated every civilization based upon: Wealth + Power = Greatness *Result=Anglo Saxons are the best and need to civilize the world. *Hierarchy of Races: “The Negro was at the foot of the Mongol, the Yellow Race between and Caucasians at the top. There’s a small gap between Primitives Races and the Gorilla.” (Robert Chambers)
Hierarchy of Races Whites: Caucasian Yellow: Asian Mongol: Eurasia Negro
Where should the U.S. expand? • Non-white countries that are not already owned by other white countries. “Inferior peoples.” • Hawaii, Cuba, Philippines, Puerto Rico, China, Guam, Panama, Nicaragua, and Mexico.
Assignment: News Cast • Each student will write a news cast for the local 10PM news reporting on the takeover and annexation of Hawaii by the United States. • Use pages 344-345 of your textbook. • You may write the news cast from either the perspective of the U.S. or the Hawaiians. Your choice. • News cast MUST be written in your own words. You may use quotes from the textbook if you like.
Ha Hawaii • Why Hawaii? -Naval Base (Pearl Harbor) -Perfect for stopping to re-fuel before going to enemy islands. -Sugar industry. -Fruit industry.
Ha Hawaii By mid 1800’s, Americans owned sugar plantations accounted for about ¾ of the islands wealth. 1875 Treaty allowed Hawaiian sugar to be sold in U.S. without a duty (import tax). 1877 White business leaders persuaded the King of Hawaii to change the constitution to only allow wealthy landowners the right to vote. 1877 U.S. forces Hawaii to allow construction of a naval base at Pearl Harbor. 1890 The McKinley Tariff eliminated the duty free status of Hawaiian sugar. Hawaiian sugar growers faced competition in the U.S. from Cuban sugar. Answer to McKinley Tariff=annex Hawaii as an American territory or state so that the duty is removed. 1893 Queen Liliukalani proposed to remove property qualifications for voting status. This would return political power to the natives. The natives would then not allow Hawaii to be annexed.
Ha Hawaii 1893 Queen Liliukalani proposed to remove property qualifications for voting status. This would return political power to the natives. The natives would then not allow Hawaii to be annexed.
Ha Hawaii On January 16, 1893 U.S. business groups in Hawaii and the U.S. ambassador John L. Stevens organized a revolt against Queen Liliukalani. The USS Boston pulls into the harbor and marines take over the Hawaiian government, imprison the Queen, and establish a provisional government with Sanford B. Dole as president. Dole refuses to step down when requested to by President Cleveland. Result=U.S. annexes Hawaii in 1898 as an American territory and the sugar duty is removed.
Bell Quiz: Read the article “Insult or Honor” on pages 6-7 of the Upfront Magazine and then answer the questions from the overhead.
White Man’s Burden: Rudyard Kipling Read and interpret. Partner up: Summarize each stanza by rewriting it in your own words. Each person must turn in their own paper.
Bell Quiz: Use Pages 346-351 What was Cuba’s main trade product in the mid 19th century? Why did Jose Marti destroy American property in Cuba? What is Yellow Journalism? Name the U.S. battleship that blew up off the coast of Cuba? Where did the first battle of the Spanish-American war take place?
Bell Quiz Answers Sugar Provoke U.S. intervention in Cuba to help the rebels. Exaggerated news stories written to sell more papers. U.S.S. Maine. The Philippines.
CUBA • Cuba is an island 90 miles off the coast of Florida owned by Spain. It’s strategically based and has a lot of money to be made from sugar, tobacco and other resources. • Jose Marti: started a rebellion against Spain in 1895. He Intentionally destroys U.S. property to get the U.S. to intervene. • De Lome letter: The Spanish didn’t think the U.S. would go to war. The U.S. intercepted a letter from the Spanish minister to the U.S. Enrique De Lome criticizing Pres. McKinley and calling him “weak.” • The U.S.S. Maine was stationed off the coast of Cuba to protect Americans and mysteriously explodes killing 260 on board- Spaniards are blamed. Enrique De Lome Jose Marti
In the Media • Yellow Journalism: Exaggerated news stories written to sell more papers. • William Randolph Hearst: Owned the New York Journal and used Yellow Journalism to get the U.S. to declare war against Spain. • Joseph Pulitzer: Owned the New York World and also used Yellow Journalism. He once told a photographer, “You supply the pictures and I’ll supply the War.” • New York Journal Headline: “THE WARSHIP MAINE WAS SPLIT IN TWO BY AN ENEMY’S SECRET INFERNAL MACHINE.” Pulitzer Hearst
Spanish-American War • April 20, 1898 The U.S. declares war on Spain. • The “Great White” naval fleet under the command of George Dewey invades the Philippines and defeats the Spanish navy. • Teddy Roosevelt and the Rough Riders (cavalry unit) invade Cuba and defeat the Spaniards. • Treaty of Paris: Spain frees Cuba, the U.S. gets Puerto Rico and Guam. The U.S. pays $20 Million to Spain for annexation of the Philippine islands.
Within each oval explain each factor in your own words Explosion of U.S.S. Maine Yellow Journalism Factors Increasing Hostility De Lome Letter Pages 346-351
Cuba Continued • Platt Amendment: Cuba was Independent but U.S. troops stayed there for 4 years controlling affairs of the Island- Provided food, education, & medicine. Agreements: 1. Cuba can’t make treaties 2. U.S. reserved the right to preserve Independence 3. Cuba can’t go in debt 4. U.S. can have a Naval base there • Protectorate (Cuba and Panama): a strong nation exerts control over an Independent Territory.
Puerto Rico • Sugar & tobacco industries. Also was strategic location for a naval base to help protect the Panama Canal and southern U.S. Troops will stay in P.R. for 23 years. • Foraker act: 1. President of U.S. appoints Puerto Rico’s governor. 2. Established an executive branch of government and a two house congress. President of U.S. appoints members to their upper house of Congress. 3. Puerto Ricans elect the members to the lower house of congress. • Puerto Rico became a commonwealth in 1952. 1. Political Independence: make own laws 2. Handle their own finances. 3. Puerto Ricans are US. Citizens: Residents get free access to the access to the U.S. 4. Don’t pay taxes to the U.S. 5. U.S. provides military service.
China • Cheaper imports and a large market for American goods. • Boxer rebellion: Chinese didn’t like our culture or religion so they closed their door to non-Asian countries . The “Boxers” kill anyone with western influence: Europeans, Americans, and Chinese citizens who convert to Christianity.
Panama Canal • Faster Trade Route= more $ • Our warships can travel to other parts of the world faster • Big stick diplomacy: “Speak softly and carry a big stick; you will go far. (First try to negotiate a compromise. If that doesn’t work then take what you want.) • Columbia owned Panama and wouldn’t sell the canal zone to the U.S. So the U.S. helps Panama organize a rebellion.
Nicaragua • Loan money to “friendly” governments to police the world • People revolt against President Adolfo Diaz of Nicaragua. The U.S. sent in the marines to protect Diaz and put an end to the revolution. • Dollar Diplomacy: The U.S. policy of loaning $ to governments so they may pay their debts. Result=Financial alliance with theU.S.(Started by President Taft.)
Missionary Diplomacy The U.S. refuses to recognize Latin American governments that are oppressive, undemocratic or hostile to U.S. interests.
Mexican Revolution Revolutions in Mexico became a common place as Mexican governments were always corrupt. Americans in Mexico were killed by Pancho Villa. Villa also crossed into the U.S. and killed American citizens. The U.S. sent General John Pershing into Mexico to capture Villa (never did) and protect U.S. citizens and their property.