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Experiment Design of a Photovoltaic/Thermal Hybrid System. Maria Browne Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, Trinity College Dublin You Supervisors’ Names Here Dr. Sarah McCormack Prof. Brian Norton 15th February 2013. Effect of Temperature on Photovoltaics.
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Experiment Design of a Photovoltaic/Thermal Hybrid System Maria Browne Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, Trinity College Dublin You Supervisors’ Names Here Dr. Sarah McCormack Prof. Brian Norton 15th February 2013
Effect of Temperature on Photovoltaics Photovoltaic (PV) cells produce thermal energy (85%) along with electrical energy (15%) when exposed to sunlight Temperature effects are more pronounced in silicon solar cells, excess of heat causes the PV cell to become less efficient (a reduction of 0.5%/K) Research suggests in organic and some plastic solar cells an increase in temperature increases their performance
Phase Change Materials Phase Change Materials (PCM) can be used for thermal control in building integrated photovoltaic, thereby maintaining efficiency PCM can absorb large amounts of heat without changing temperature-latent heat Various types of PCM; organic (fatty acids, paraffin wax), inorganic (salt) and eutectic (mixture of compounds) The type of PCM applied to a system depends on the following properties; -phase change temperature (ºC) -enthalpy of phase change (J) -heat capacity (J/Kg) -thermal conductivity (W/m K)
Use of Phase Change Materials for Thermal Control in Building Integrated Photovoltaics Previous research includes regulating the temperature of PV cells by integrating PCM to maintain PV efficiency (Hasan, 2010) I am concentrating on thermal energy stored in the PCM and using it for a suitable application e.g. water heating, space heating Designed and currently installing a PV/thermal hybrid system on the roof of Kevin Street, DIT Electrical energy is generated by the PV, thermal energy is transferred from the PV to PCM and this thermal energy will then be used to heat water
Use of Phase Change Materials for Thermal Control in Building Integrated Photovoltaics Thermosyphon, through which the water will flow Thermosyphon inserted in the semi-complete container Completed container attached to the solar panel
Use of Phase Change Materials for Thermal Control in Building Integrated Photovoltaics Phase Change material which will be used is a eutectic, comprising of fatty acids, capric (75%) and palmitic (25%) Shown to be thermally stable Below is a table showing the properties
What values are being analysed in the system? • The transfer of heat across the system will be measured using a series of K-type thermocouples • Twisted K-type thermocouples will be used • back and front of the PV • in the water cylinder • ambient temperatures • Stainless steel sheath thermocouples will be used to measure • the temperature of the water flow in the pipes • The temperature of the PCM inside the container • A thermal paste has been applied to the back of the PV and the container to enhance thermal contact
What values are being analysed in the system? • The following are measured in the electrical system • PV voltage • PV current • Battery voltage • Battery current • Other values being measured are • Rate of flow • Solar radiation • Spectral radiation
Use of Phase Change Materials for Thermal Control in Building Integrated Photovoltaics Predicted Results Regulate the temperature of the system An increase in the temperature of the water in the system Maintained efficiency of the thermal controlled system Assess the value of heat loss to the surroundings Suggest ways to optimise the system
Thank you for your attention. Any questions?