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Generalization

Generalization

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Generalization

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  1. Generalization A generalization is a kind of conclusion.

  2. Clue Words indicate a generalization. KEY WORDS NEVER ALL NONE MOST SOMETIMES SELDOM OVERALL IN GENERAL EVERYONE ALWAYS USUALLY FEW

  3. A generalization is a statement that the reader or writer can make about many examples. Examples: • All animals that have fur are mammals. • All animals that have feathers are birds.

  4. Generalizations can be valid or faulty. VALID FAULTY FALSE Can lead to stereotypes Can become a superstitution • TRUE • BASED ON SEVERAL PIECES OF SPECIFIC EVIDENCE

  5. VALID Generalizations • You learn that over half of the students in your school have experienced divorce. You generalize that divorce has become more common in your city. 2. You realize that five girls in your class have the name Emma and four boys have the name Justin. From this you could generalize that names go in and out of fashion.

  6. FAULTY Generalizations • You know a girl who is afraid of snakes. You might falsely generalize that all girls are afraid of snakes. 2. Your brothers are very interested in computers. You might falsely generalize that all boys are interested in technologies.

  7. Think!The climate in Mexico is generally warmer than Northern Ohio. Well, I know Mexico is closer to the equator than northern United States. That is a fact. And I know the closer you are to the equator the hotter it is…Soooooo… The reader should ask himself questions while reading: How can the writer say Mexico has a warmer climate?

  8. Analyze! Look for examples and facts to support an opinion and generalization • Girls can’t play ball. • Students always do their homework. • Teachers are mean. Facts?

  9. What generalization can you make about the popularity of the New England Patriots?

  10. What generalization can you make about dogs in training?

  11. What generalization can you make about the way puppies sleep?

  12. Let’s Practice #1 The Northwest natives lived by the Pacific Ocean. Large trees were used to make dug-out or canoes. The tribes fished and traded their goods to inland tribes. The rivers provided fresh water and a way to move from one area to another. Wildlife such as bear, whale, deer, elk, and beaver were plentiful.

  13. Let’s Practice #1 Generalization Overall the Northwest natives survived because they had many useful resources. The Northwest natives lived by the Pacific Ocean. Large trees were used to make dug- out or canoes. The tribes fished and traded their goods to inland tribes. The rivers provided fresh water and a way to move from one area to another. Wildlife such as bear, whale, deer, elk, and beaver were plentiful. Does the author give enough facts to make the above generalization? ? resources

  14. Practice #2 Not enough information Pueblo Indians built homes in the cliff side. Many rooms were built to make the family comfortable. GENERALIZATION In the Southwest, most the natives had limited natural resources. Faulty Does the author support this statement? Is this generalization valid or faulty?. ? resources

  15. Generalizations • Girls can’t play ball. Valid Faulty • Teachers are mean. Valid Faulty • Students always do Valid Faulty their homework each night. • Halloween is always scary! Valid Faulty Faulty Faulty Valid Faulty

  16. Practice #3: Dolphins in the Military

  17. The newest members of the U.S. military forces aren’t soldiers. They aren’t even human. They’re dolphins! Specially trained Atlantic bottle-nosed dolphins have arrived in the Persian Gulf to help check for mines, or underwater explosives, along Iraq’s coastline. Once they’re finished, ships will be able to safely transport food and medicine to the Iraqi people.

  18. Makai and Tacoma Ready For Action The dolphins, named Makai and Tacoma, were flown into the Iraqi port city of Umm Qasr by U.S. Navy helicopters Tuesday night. They were expected to begin searching for mines along with military divers on Wednesday, according to several news reports.

  19. Which is the Valid Generalization? • All dolphins are trained to work with the military. • The military use some dolphins to help locate underwater mines.

  20. Practice #4: Dolphins at Work The dolphins, which came from San Diego, California, are are trained to place markers near the mines they find. They are taught to avoid touching or swimming to the mines, which might cause them to explode, said Navy Captain Mike Tillotson. While Tillotson said there was little risk to animals doing this kind of work, some animal activists are speaking out against the plan. They worry the dolphins could get hurt.

  21. Underwater Helpers A unit of 70 dolphins and 20 sea lions has been trained by the U.S. Navy to spot underwater mines and bombs in deep waters. The sea lions are trained to alert humans when they detect an intruding diver.

  22. Underwater Helpers This is not the first time dolphins have helped out U.S. military efforts. The Navy started using dolphins in the early 1960s, when researchers began looking into how the dolphins' sonar, their ability to identify objects based on sound waves, could be used to locate mines and do other underwater tasks. The dolphins returned to action during the Vietnam War and again in the 1990-1991 Gulf War.

  23. Valid or Faulty Generalization? All dolphins are trained to help military personnel detect mines in the waterways of Iraq. • A. This generalization is valid. It is supported by facts and examples. • B. This generalization is faulty. The reader made an error and did not re-read to check the facts.

  24. Which is a Valid Generalization? • Military divers train some animals to help with dangers missions. • Military forces train dolphins for work in underwater mine fields.

  25. Generalizations • A kind of conclusion • Must be supported by facts or specific examples • Help us comprehend an author’s writing • Key words: all, most, overall, generally, none, every

  26. The End.

  27. Generalizations Adapted from an online ppt. presentation by Mrs. Ludlam @images.schoolinsites.com/