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The Atmosphere

The Atmosphere

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The Atmosphere

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  1. The Atmosphere Chapter 15 Section1

  2. Composition of the Atmosphere • The most abundant gas in the atmosphere that we breathe is Nitrogen • 78% Nitrogen • The second most abundant gas in the atmosphere is Oxygen • 21% Oxygen • The remaining gases amount to less than 1% of the atmosphere • The atmosphere is a mixture of gases that surrounds the Earth

  3. Atmospheric Pressure • Air pressure is the measure of the force with which the air molecules push on a surface • Air pressure changes with altitude • Altitude is the height of an object above the Earth’s surface • The closer or lower you are in the atmosphere the more pressure that is exerted on you. • The higher you move into the Earth’s atmosphere the lower the pressure you will feel. • The pressure on the Earth’s surface is measured with a barometer

  4. Layers of the Atmosphere • Based on temperature, the Earth’s atmosphere is divided into four layers • By the way did I say the layers are based on temperature.

  5. Troposphere • The troposphere lies next to the Earth’s surface • It is the densest layer of the atmosphere • This is the layer that we live in • This is the layer that all the weather forms • As you move up through the troposphere the temperature and air pressure drops

  6. Stratosphere • The layer just above the troposphere is called the stratosphere • In the stratosphere the air is very thin and contains little moister • The lower part is very cold -60 Celsius • The temperature is high in the upper part of the stratosphere • The upper part of the stratosphere has an area called the ozone • Ozone is a molecule that is made up of three oxygen atoms • The ozone absorbs ultraviolet radiation, warming the air • The ozone protects the life on Earth

  7. Mesosphere • The mesosphere is just above the stratosphere • The mesosphere is the coldest layer of the atmosphere • The mesosphere get cooler as you move to the upper part of it

  8. Thermosphere • Just above the mesosphere is the thermosphere • The thermosphere is the upper most part of the atmosphere • In this part of the atmosphere the temperature rises as you move up through it • Temperatures in this layer can reach 1,700 Celsius • If you could stand in the thermosphere you would not feel hot

  9. Ionosphere • The upper part of mesosphere & lower part of the thermosphere is the ionosphere • Nitrogen & oxygen atoms absorb X rays and gamma rays • This causes the particles to become electrically charged, electrically charged particles are called ions • Ions radiate energy as light (Aurora borealis) • It also reflects some radio signals like am radio back to Earth