Israel World History April 11th, 2013
Environmental Change Zionist settlers (people who thought that immigrating to Israel, away from persecution, could solve problems) find little land in good condition for settling 1880s begin “reclaiming” land Drain swamps and bring water into desert
“If the state does not put an end to the desert, the desert is likely to put an end to the state” -David Ben-Gurion, 1st PM of Israel The challenge of geography!
Technology Transforms the Desert Negev Desert covers ½ of the country National Water Carrier: pipelines, canals, tunnels (about 100 miles long) for irrigation Drip irrigation: specific amounts of water drip onto plants from pipes Now produces most of its own food… but water conservation is a huge issue!
Mining the Dead Sea Huge, saltwater lake Many minerals means no fish/animals can live here Potash: mineral that can be extracted from the Dead Sea and used in explosives and fertilizers
Create new towns! • High pay… time off… • But not many social opportunities!
Diverse Cultures About 80% Jewish… but come from many parts of the globe! (immigration) Ashkenazi Jews: migrated from northern and eastern Europe (mostly before 1948) Sephardic Jews: migrated from southern Europe, SW Asia, N. Africa, Asia (often poorer and less educated)
Arabs of Israel About 20% of the population Christian, Muslim, Druzes Citizens, serve in armed forces, free press, often allowed to form political parties… But feel discriminated against (education, employment, etc)
Palestinian Refugees Remember how England helped divide Palestine/Israel and it created tension (and war?) End of 1949 war most Palestinians lost their homes and property 500,000 fled to neighboring, Arab countries
West Bank and Gaza Strip Israeli army took control of these regions in 1967 200,000 Palestinians fled to Jordan Some refugees found jobs while others lived in crowded camps
Continued Conflict 1970s and 1980s thousands Palestinians and Israelis lost their lives to fighting Resolutions proposed, but rejected (neither wanted to recognize the other)
Reaction to Egyptian Revolution: PALESTINIAN TERRITORIES The Palestinian Territories have not seen the same kind of demonstrations as in many Arab countries, but the government has been under criticism since Al-Jazeera published secret papers claiming to reveal some of the wide-ranging concessions Palestinian officials were prepared to make in negotiations with Israel. Negotiations have collapsed. Abbas' Palestinian Authority holds sway only over the West Bank. The militant Islamist movement Hamas controls Gaza.
Pop Quiz How does the geography and environment of the nation challenge Israelis? What is the Arab-Israeli conflict?