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  1. Six - Sigma Training Material Six-Sigma

  2. What is Six-Sigma Key Terms Six Sigma A term coined by Motorola to express process capability in parts per million.A six sigma process generates a defect probability of 3.4 parts per million (PPM) Champion An upper level business leader who facilitates the leadership,implementation,and deployment of six sigma philosophies. Black Belt A process improvement project team leader who is trained and certified in six-Sigma methodology and tools and who is responsible for project execution. Mater Black Belt A person who is an “expert ” on Six Sigma techniques and on project implementation,master Black Belt play a key role in training and coaching of Back and Green Belts. Green Belt Six Sigma role similar in function to Black Belt but length of training and project scope are reduced to two weeks of training.

  3. What is Six-Sigma Key Terms Yellow Belt Hourly personnel trained in the fundamentals of six-sigma who assist and support in project execution ,usual work with black and Green Belt. Process Map A step-by-step pictorial sequence of a process showing process inputs,process outputs,cycle time ,rework operations,and inspection points. Key process Inputs Variable (KPIV) The vital few input variables,call “x”s Key process outputs Variable (KPOV) The output variables,call “x”s DFMA Design for manufacture and assemble, A methodology to reduce product complexity and design around more capable components / processes Cost of poor quality Cost associated with Providing poor quality products or services. Can be divide into four cost categories :Appraisal ,Scrap, Rework,and field Complaint

  4. What is Six-Sigma • What is Six-Sigma • Vision  Philosophy  Aggressive Goal • Metric (Standard of measurement )  Benchmark • Method • Tools for :  Customer focus  Breakthrough Improvement  Continues improvement  People Involvement • Six-Sigmais a problem solving process used--- to produce: • Reduced variation in our processes / Products  improved RTY , DPU,& DPPM / Reduced cost of poor quality (COPQ) / improved capacity and productivity  $$’s

  5. What is Six-Sigma Six-Sigma can be applied to every business function SERVICE DESIGN ADMIN. PURCH. Six-Sigma MFG QA MAINT.

  6. What is Six-Sigma Six-Sigma Focus :  Delighting the Customer Through Flawless Execution  Rapid Breakthrough Improvement  Advanced Breakthrough Tools that work  Positive and Deep Culture Change  Real Financial results : Passion +Execution = Fast and Lasting Results Who else in the U.S has started Six Sigma  Motorola ( 1987 )  Texas Instruments (1988 )  IBM (1990 )  ABB (1993 )  Alliedsignal / Koadk (1994 )  GE (1995 )  Whirlpool ,Bombardier, Polaroid , Siebe & PACCAR ( 1996 / 98 )

  7. What is Six-Sigma Top Tools Value Analysis  Concept Engineering  K J methodology QFD  Process Map  Cause and effect matrix  Measurement system analysis  capability analysis  Descriptive statistics  Graphical techniques Box Plots / Histograms / Scatter plots / Run charts Pareto charts / check sheets / Time series plots  Statistical process control chart  Correlation  Simple multiple regression  Multi-Vari studies

  8. What is Six-Sigma Top Tools  Inferential statistics Central limit theorem Confidence interval  Failure mode and effect analysis Design &Process  Fraction factorial experiments  Full factorial experiments  Response surface methods  Transformations  Normal distribution  Sample size determination  Screening studies  Statistical Tolerancing  Design for manufacturability  Design for quality  Hypothesis testing  F-test  Chi-square test  Tests for normality  Analysis of Variance

  9. What is Six-Sigma ISO and Six-Sigma

  10. What is Six-Sigma Leading Six-Sigma In Operations  Select the Right project : Clarify Big Picture using Strategic Plan  Establish Plant / productivity baseline  Prioritize projects base on value,resources req’d timing  Select key projects with leadership buy-in  Check accountability : business and personal  Select and train the Right people  Ensure the right leadership and ownership  Develop a training plan  Dedicate time for training and application  Ensure the right support resources are available

  11. What is Six-Sigma Leading Six-Sigma In Operations  Plan and Implement Six Sigma Improvement Plans : Measure process  Analyze Process  Improve Process  Control process  Manage for Excellence in operation  Stay focused  Frequently review process and remove barriers  Check real business impact  Continuously communicate progress  Link to performance management and R&R  Sustain the Gains  Implement effective control plans  Conduct regular training focused on the process  Review quarterly the six sigma system effectiveness  Continually identify and lunch new project

  12. What is Six-Sigma Six – Sigma Process Improvement Roadmap Phase 0:Define * Scope and Boundary * Define Defects * Team Charter and Champion * Estimated $ Impact * Leadership approval Phase 1: Process Measurement * Map process and Identify Inputs and Outputs * Cause and effects Matrix * Establish Measurement System capability * Establish Process Capability Baseline

  13. What is Six-Sigma Six – Sigma Process Improvement Roadmap Phase 11: Process Analysis *Complete FMEA *Perform Multi-Vari Analysis *Identity Potential Critical Inputs *Develop Plan for Next Phase Phase 111: Process Improvement *Verify Critical Inputs * Optimize Critical Inputs Phase IV: Process Control *Implement Control Plan *Verify Long Term Capability *Continuously Improve Process

  14. What is Six-Sigma Design for Six – Sigma Roadmap Step 1. Define / Measure Product Charter,Stage/Gate Criteria & Metrics Determine Customer needs Develop QFD Matrix Step 2.Analysis Product Complete FMEA Review Data and Prioritize Key Input Variables Perform Gage Studies on Essential Measurement Systems

  15. What is Six-Sigma Design for Six – Sigma Roadmap Step 3. Optimize Product Define Critical Inputs using DOE Evaluate Impact of Scale Sensitive Variables using DOE Optimize Product / process using Statistical Tolerancing and Design for MFG Develop Process Map with Key Input and Output Variables Step 4.Control Product Develop Control Plan Complete Capability Analysis / Prediction

  16. What is Six-Sigma Suggested Project Filters  Significantly Improves Defects/1000,Scrap,Warranty Claims ,Time to Market 50% reduction in Defects/1000, 50%reduction in scrap 50% reduction in Warranty Claims 50% improvement in product lunch cycle time  Focuses on high impact / high risk product  Significantly reduces field inquires  Improves Customer Service

  17. What is Six-Sigma Project Status Sheet

  18. What is Six-Sigma Project Chart

  19. Process Improvement Plan • Key Terms • KPIV • Key process input variable or Critical to process ( CTP ) variable • Associated with the X’s • KPOV • Key process output variable or Critical to Quality ( CTQ) • Associated with the Y’s Y=ƒ ( X1,X2,Xn ) • Typical for Process Improvement • Control the existing system • Identify Inputs that are not in control and control them • Deliverable : good Process control Plan • Optimize the existing System • Process in control but input Specification are not optimum • Doe’s performed to understand the relationships between the X’s and the Y’s

  20. Process Improvement Plan • Typical for Process Improvement • Redesign the existing System • Process is optimized but not producing competitive product characteristics • Link -up between manufacturing and Technology groups the key to success • Create a new System • Process is redesign but still not producing competitive product characteristics to be number one in market • Technology link is strongest here

  21. Process Improvement Plan • Improvement Strategies • Characterization • Optimization • Technical Breakthrough 4.Practical Solution 3.Statistical Solution Overall Approach 2.Statistical Problem Y=ƒ ( X1,X2,Xn ) 1.Practical Problem

  22. Process Improvement Plan Process Improvement Roadmap • Step 1: Process Measurement •  Plan project and identify key process input/output variables • Perform gage studies on essential measurement system • Perform Short-term capability studies and evaluate control plan • Step11:Process Analysis •  Complete FMEA and evaluate control plan •  Complete Multi-Vari studies to identify potential key inputs •  Review Data and prioritize key input variables

  23. Process Improvement Plan Process Improvement Roadmap • Step111: Process Improvement • Verify critical inputs using DOE •  Determine the optimum operating window • Update the control plan Step1V:Process control  Finalize the process control plan  Ongoing verification of the stability and capability of the process

  24. Process Improvement Plan Four Phases and 8 key Tools Measure Analysis Improve Control $$ Advanced Tools accelerate Results

  25. Process Improvement Plan Dynamics of Process Improvement Plan- The Funnel Effect 30-50 KPIVs All X’s Measure process Maps  Measurement Systems  Capability Analysis  Histogram  Control Chart 1st “Hit List ” 10-15 KPIVs 8-10 KPIVs Analyze  Cause and Effect Matrix Screened List  FMEA  Design of Experiments ( DOE )  Multi-Vari Studies 4-8 Critical KPIVs Found Critical X’s Improve and Control  DOE / Evolutionary operations  Control Plan  Statistical process Control Charts 3-6 Critical KPIVs Controlling Critical X’s

  26. Project Definition Project Definition : Key preparation phase DEFINE MEASURE ANALYZE IMPROVE CONTROL Defining CTQs Business case ( Describes why the project is important to do ) Problem and Goal Statement ( Describes what Problem or issue is ) Clarifying Customer Requirements ( What do you Provide your customers :)  Services :Delivery / Order information / repair / technical support  Products :Equipment / Invoices / Packing Slips  Can be tangible or intangible

  27. Project Definition Project Definition : Key preparation phase DEFINE MEASURE ANALYZE IMPROVE CONTROL Defining CTQs ( How to find out what the Customer wants? ) Customer surveys  Concept engineering  Focus groups  Quality Function deployment  Customer needs mapping Operational Definitions Project Scoping

  28. Mapping Use for Process Map  Inputs to Cause and Effects Matrix  Inputs to FMEA  Inputs to Control Plan Summary  Inputs to Capability Summary  Evaluate experimental Designs ---Tracks variables studied --- Allows evaluate design’s robustness to noise variables Two type of Process Mapping  Process mapping for KPIVs and KPOVs --use as first step in six sigma process ---critical in order to successfully improve process variation

  29. Mapping Two type of Process Mapping ( Continue )  “As Is / Can Be” mapping --excellent method for identifying non-value added steps ---necessary first step in cycle-time reduction projects ---excellent for discrete processes  A well defined KPIV process map can be used to develop the As Is / Can be map Process Mapping Steps ☆ Identify the process and its external inputs and customer outputs identify external inputs : raw material / identify end customer outputs : if process is under development, then use product design QFD to identify final product specifications.

  30. Mapping • Process Mapping Steps (Continue ) • ☆ Identify all steps in the process • include all value-added and non-value-added steps • ☆ List key output variables at each step • include both process and product output variables • ☆ List key input variables and classify process • inputs as controllable,noise,or standard operating procedures • ☆ Controllable inputs :KPIV’s that can be changed to see the effect on KPOV’s ,sometimes call “Knob ” variables • ☆ Noise inputs :input variables that impact the KPOV’s but are difficult • or impossible to control • ☆ Standard operating procedures :qualitative variables which are specified in the standard procedure for running the process • ☆ Critical inputs :KPIV’s that have been statistically shown to have a major impact on the variability of the KPOV’s

  31. Mapping Preparing the process Map  Team Effort manufacturing engineers / line operators / line supervisors / maintenance technicians  Inputs to Mapping △ brainstorming △ operator manuals △ engineering specifications △ operator experience △ 6 M’s ( man , machine , materials , method , environment ) Optional Mapping Symbols  you can use these symbols to help the separate steps, only green is value added.  Process Step or Operation  Storage / queue  Quality Check or Inspection  Decision Transport or movement

  32. Mapping Example of Detailed Map Another Format

  33. Mapping

  34. Mapping

  35. Mapping

  36. Mapping Non-Value Added Analysis As Is / Can Be Mapping Often during the design or analysis of a process we find many steps which are not value-added  Definition of value-added  Customer recognizes the value  Changes the product  Done light the first time  Required by law , regulation , or contract, or for HS&E or ethical considerations

  37. Mapping As Is / Can Be Analysis how to analyze a process map-step &/ as is / can be  Validate the process map with a “walk through” by the entire team ( establish baseline )  Identify value-added and necessary step  Identify other streamlining activities to improve process flow  Determine entitlement and develop “can be “ map ( consider benchmarking “best-in-class ” / “ world class” processes  Validate can -be map / Develop implementation / implement Definitions  Baseline :the performance of the existing process  Entitlement : the performance of the existing process,allowing for only value added and necessary tasks / activities  Best-in -class : the best performance for the process anywhere within the industry  World class : the best performance for the process anywhere

  38. Mapping “As Is / Can Be” Mapping Views There are usually 3 versions of each “As Is / Can Be” Map What you Want it to be ----- What you believe it is ------ What it actually is ------- ●→●→●→● → • Necessary Steps Definition • A step may be non-value-added but necessary if: • It is required by law ,regulation, or contract • It is required for health,safety,environmental,or ethical considerations

  39. C & E Matrix Cause and Effects Matrix  This is a simple QFD ( Quality Function Deployment ) matrix to emphasize the Importance of understanding the customer requirements  Relates the key inputs to the key outputs ( customer requirements ) using the process map as the primary source  Key outputs are scored as to importance to the customer  Key inputs are scored as to relationship to key outputs  Results :Pareto of key inputs to evaluate in the FMEA and control Plans  Results :Input into the capability study step in the measurement phase  Results :Input into the initial evaluation of the process control plan

  40. C & E Matrix Cause & Effect Matrix Step  Identify Customer requirements ( outputs ) from Process Map  Rank order and assign priority factor to each outputs ( usually on a 1 to 10 scale )  Identify all process steps and materials ( inputs ) from the process Map  Evaluate correlation of each input to each output low scale :changes in the input variable ( amount,quality,etc ) have small effect on output variable High scale :changes in the input variable can greatly affect the output variable .  Cross multiply correlation values with priority factors and add across for each input

  41. C & E Matrix

  42. C & E Matrix Note : This table provides the initial input to the FMEA. When each of the output variables (requirements) are not correct, that represents potential "EFFECTS". When each input variable is not correct, that represents "Failure Modes". 1. List the Key Process Output Variables 2. Rate each variable on a 1-to-10 scale to importantance to the customer 3. List Key Process Input Variables 4. Rate each variables relationship to each output variable on a 1-to-10 scale 5. Select the top input variables to start the FMEA process; Determine how each selected input varable can "go wrong" and place that in the Failure Mode column of the FMEA.

  43. C & E Matrix Linking the C&E Matrix to other Tools C&E Matrix Inputs Outputs Capability Summary FMEA Control Plan Summary The Key Outputs are listed and evaluated. Key Inputs are explored The Key Inputs are evaluated.

  44. C & E Matrix The Purpose of this worksheet is to guide actions needed to get statistical capability data .The form addresses both the Measurement systems and the process capability .any blank spaces in the from need to be addresses by actions

  45. C & E Matrix For every input in the C&E matrix Pareto,an initial assessment of the control plan is done,this helps pick low hanging fruit at the front end of a process improvement project

  46. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis Definition - FMEA ■A structured approach to: -- -Identifying the ways in which a product or process can fail --- estimating the risk associated with specific causes --- prioritizing the actions that should be taken to reduce the risk --- evaluating the design validation plan {Product} or the current control plan (Process} ■Primary Directive : Identify ways the product or process can fail and eliminate or reduce the risk of failure

  47. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis History ◆First used in the 1960's in the Aerospace industry during the Apollo missions ◆In 1974 the Navy developed MIL-STD-1629 regarding the use of FMEA ◆In the late 1970's, automotive applications driven by liability costs ◆Later the automotive industry saw the advantages of using this tool to reduce risks related to poor quality. ◆Early 80’s: Micro Electronic Industry started to apply FMEA to assist in improving the “yield of memory devices”.  Mid 80’s: Automotive industries started to apply FMEA to the manufacturing processes.  90’s: TQS 9000 recommended adoption of FMEA.

  48. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis Where do Risk Come From Cumulative Risk : ① Raw Material Variation ② Poorly developed Specification Limits ③ Measurement Variation ( Online and QC ) ④ Machine Reliability ⑤ Vague Workmanship Standards ⑥ Unclear customer Expectations ⑦ Potential Safety Hazards ⑧ Poor control plans & SOP’s ⑨ Poor Process capability

  49. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis Type of FMIEA's ◆System – used to analyze systems and sub-systems in the early concept and design stages. Focuses on potential failure modes associated with the functions of a system caused by the design. ◆Design - used to analyze product designs before they are released to production. Focuses on Product Function. ◆Process – used to analyze manufacturing and assembly processes. Focuses on Process Inputs.

  50. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis Role of Process FMEA ◆Key tool of process team to improve the process in a preemptive manner (before failure occur) * The best FMEA results are NEVER SEEN! ◆Used to prioritize resources to insure process improvement efforts are beneficial to customer ◆Used to document completion of projects ◆Should be a dynamic document, continually reviewed, amended, updated