Chapter 21 Reaction, Revolution, and Romanticism, 1815 - 1850
The Conservative Order (1815 – 1830) • The Peace Settlement • Quadruple Alliance: Great Britain, Russia, Austria, Prussia • Defeated Napoleon • Congress of Vienna (1814 – 1815) • Created policies to maintain European balance of power • Lead by Prince Klemens von Metternich (Austrian foreign minister) • Believed European monarchs shared common interest of stability • The principal of legitimacy • Considered it necessary to restore legitimate monarchs to preserve traditional institutions • Restore Bourbon monarchy to the throne in Louis XVIII • A new balance of power • Strengthen countries to prevent one country from dominating • Napoleon’s escape from Elba prompted the Congress of Vienna to push France’s borders back to those of 1790 as punishment for enthusiastically accepting him back
Possible Test Question • At the Congress of Vienna, the Austrian representative Prince Metternich pursued the policy of legitimacy, meaning • He wished to legitimate the French defeat. • He sought legitimate control over central Europe to benefit Austria. • He endeavored to restore legitimate monarchs on their thrones and to preserve traditional institutions and values. • He sought legitimate proof of England’s economic and industrial support of Austria. • He demanded that the state churches, Catholic or Protestant, become the primary rulers throughout all of Europe.
Possible Test Question • The Congress of Vienna • Gave Prussia complete control over Polish lands. • Created policies that would maintain the European balance of power. • Failed to achieve long-lasting peace among European nations. • Treated France leniently following Napoleon’s One Hundred Days. • Sanctioned the political power of the bourgeoisie.
Conservative Ideology • Conservatism became the dominant political thought after the fall of Napoleon • From Edmund Burke, Reflections on the Revolution of France • Emphasized the dangers of radical political change • Conservative political thought • Obedience to political authority • Organized religion was crucial to social order • Hated revolutionary upheavals • Advocated slow, gradual changes • Unwilling to accept liberal demands or representative government • Wanted to preserve achievements of previous generations while sacrificing individual rights for the well being of the community
Possible Test Question • Conservatism, the dominant political philosophy following the fall of Napoleon • Was rejected by the Congress of Vienna as inappropriate in the new liberal age. • Expressed that individual rights remained the best guide for human order. • Was exemplified by Edmund Burke’s Reflections on the Revolution in France, emphasizing the dangers of radical and “rational” political change. • Was too radical for Joseph de Maistre, the French spokesman for a cautious, evolutionary conservatism. • Advocated the creation of oligarchic republics.
New Map of Europe • Congress of Vienna sought to weaken France and maintain a balance power • Created a new enlarged Netherlands • Enlarged Sardina • Prussia was given territory on the Rhine • Germanic Confederation (Germanic States) • Kingdom of Poland • Austria got territory in northern Italy • Congress of Vienna managed to prevent an all out European conflict for almost a century
Conservative Domination: The Concert of Europe • The Concert of Europe • Fear of Revolution & war led to development of the Concert of Europe • Met several times: congresses • Quintuple Alliance • Withdraw armies from France, add France to the Concert of Europe
Principle of intervention • Outbreak of revolution in Spain and Italy • Great powers reserved the right to send armies into countries where there were revolutions to restore legitimate monarchs to their throne • Britain objected to the principle of intervention leading to a breakdown in the Concert of Europe • Austrian troops crushed Italian rebellion • French troops crushed Spanish rebellion • Britain’s refusal kept Continental Europe from interfering in revolutions in Latin America
Possible Test Question • The most important factor in preventing the European overthrow of the newly independent nations of Latin America was • European economic collapse. • The Monroe Doctrine guiding American foreign policy. • The sheer size of South America. • Growing support for pacifism in Europe. • British naval power.
The Revolt of Latin America • Bourbon monarchy of Spain toppled • Latin American countries begin declaring independence • Simón Bolivar (1783-1830) • Freed Columbia (1819) & Venezuela (1821) • José de San Martín (1778-1850) • Freed Chile (1817) • San Martin & Bolivar joined to crush the last Spanish authority in Lima, Peru (1821) • After 1825, almost all of Latin America was free of colonial domination • Continental Europe looked to intervene, U.S. passed the Monroe Doctrine pledging to support Latin American countries • British Navy was more of a deterrent than U.S. words • Britain began to dominate Latin American economy • British merchants & investors moved in
The Greek Revolt, 1821-1832 • Intervention could support revolution as well • Greek revolt in, 1820 • European sympathy for their cause grew • Britain, France, Russia at war • French & British navy destroyed Ottoman Armada • Russia declared war on Ottoman Empire • Treaty of Adrianople, 1829 • Ended the Russian-Turkish War • Greece was declared an independent kingdom
Possible Test Question • The Greek revolt was successful largely due to • A well-trained guerrilla army. • The Turks’ lack of fortitude. • European intervention. • Superior Greek military tactics. • Adopting a policy of peaceful coexistence.
Conservative Domination: The European States • Great Britain: Rule of the Tories • Landowning classes dominate Parliament • Tory and Whig factions; Tories dominate • Corn Law of 1815 – placed a high tariff on foreign grain – put a financial strain on working classes • Peterloo Massacre (1819) – military fired on English protesting high bread prices
Restoration in France • Louis XVIII (r. 1814 – 1824) • Kept some of the Revolutionary changes • Accepted some of the Napoleonic Code • Property Rights • Bicameral Legislature Established • Ultraroyalists – hoped to return to a monarchical system & criticized the king’s willingness to compromise
Intervention in the Italian States and Spain • Conservative reaction against the forces of nationalism and liberalism • Austrian forces intervene in Italy • French forces intervene in Spain • Repression in Central Europe • Metternich and the forces of reaction • Liberal and national movements in Germany • Initially weak & remained controlled by landowning class • Burschenshaften – students societies, dedicated to a free and united Germany (symbol of growing liberalism and nationalism) • Karlsbad Decrees (1819) • Metternich had this decree drawn up by the Germanic Confederation in response to the Burschenschaften • The Karlsbad Decrees (1819) • Disbanded the Burschenschaften • Censored the press • Supervised universities • Restrictions on university activities
Possible Test Question • The Karlsbad Decrees of 1819 did all of the following except • Disband the Burschenshaften. • Impose censorship on the German press. • Placed most German universities under close government supervision. • Dissolved several smaller German states. • Placed restrictions upon university activities.
Russia • Start of 19th century, Russia was rural, agricultural, and autocratic • Alexander I (1801-1825) • Raised on ideas of the Enlightenment & seemed sympathetic to reform • Leader of Russia during Napoleonic Wars • Reformed the Russian education system • After the defeat of Napoleon, his rule turned stricter leading to opposition • Used censorship to govern the people • Nicholas I (1825-1855) • Military leaders of the Northern Union rebelled against Nicholas I taking the throne (Decembrist Revolt) • Revolt was crushed by loyal troops • Russia became a police state (secret police) • Nicholas feared revolutions in Russia & in Europe
Possible Test Question • Tsar Alexander I of Russia did all of the following except • Become more reactionary after the defeat of Napoleon. • Grant a constitution, freeing the serfs. • Reform the Russian education system. • Revert to a program of arbitrary censorship as a tool of governing. • Was the leader of Russia during the Napoleonic Wars.
Ideologies of Change • Liberalism • Economic liberalism (classical economics) • Laissez-faire – free from constraints • Supply & Demand would dictate the market • Thomas Malthus Essay on the Principles of Population • Presented a case against government intervention • Misery & poverty were simply the inevitable result of the law of nature; no government or individual should interfere with its operation • David Ricardo Principles of Political Economy • Iron Law of Wages • Wages are cyclical, raising them arbitrarily is futile • Increase in population means more workers, lower wages, resulting in starvation & misery, reducing the population, which increases wages, causing a higher birth rate and the cycle continues
Possible Test Question • The argument that population must be held in check for any progress to take place was popularized by • Adam Smith. • David Ricardo. • Joeseph de Maistre. • Edmund Burke. • Thomas Malthus.
Political liberalism • Ideology of political liberalism • Believed in individual freedom • Protection of civil liberties • Freedom before the law, assembly, speech, press • Modeled after the Declaration of Independence & the Rights of Man & Citizen • The rights of a representative assembly (legislature) to make laws • Political liberalism was embraced by the industrial middle class • They wanted voting rights so they could share power with the landowning class but they didn’t advocate extending those rights to the lower class
John Stuart Mill, On Liberty • Supported the absolute freedom of opinion and sentiment on all subjects • Supported Women’s rights • On the Subjection of Women • The legal subordination of one sex to the other was wrong • Important work for later suffrage movements
Possible Test Question • The foremost group embracing liberalism was made up by • Factory workers. • The industrial middle class. • Radical aristocrats. • Army officers. • The landed gentry.
Nationalism • Part of a community with common institutions, traditions, language, and customs • The community is called a “nation” • Formation of political loyalty • Nationalist ideology • Arose from the French Revolution and spread across Europe • National unity in Germany or Italy threatened to upset the balance of power established with the Congress of Vienna • An independent Hungarian state would breakup the Austrian Empire • Conservatives tried to repress nationalism (Concert of Europe) • Allied with liberalism • Liberals believed their goals could only be realized by people who ruled themselves • Nationalists believed that stronger states comprised of their own people would eventually link communities and ultimately humanity
Early Socialism • Utopian Socialists • Against private property & competitive spirit of capitalism • Charles Fourier (1772 – 1838) • Proposed the creation of small model cooperative communities called “phalansteries” • People would live & work together for mutual benefit • Robert Owen (1771-1858) • British cotton manufacturer who believed human goodness would reveal itself if people worked together • Developed a healthy community in Scotland but failed in U.S.
Early Socialism • Louis Blanc (1813 – 1882) • Thought social problems could be solved by government assistance • Denounced competition as an economic evil • Proposed establishing workshops that would manufacture goods for public sale • The state would finance the workshops but the workers would own and operate them • These national workshops would become little more than unemployment compensation units through public works projects • Female Supporters • Utopian socialism attracted many women who hoped to help their gender by reordering society • Flora Tristan (1803 – 1844) • Traveled Europe demanding equality for the sexes • She was largely ignored • Socialism remained a fringe movement in the early 19th century but it laid the groundwork for later attacks on capitalism
Possible Test Question • The French socialist, Flora Tristan • Demanded absolute equality of the sexes. • Established a cooperative socialist community at New Harmony, Indiana. • Felt that the greatest evil in society was the profit motive in business and economics. • Started the international “Women’s Social and Political Union.” • Condemned Karl Marx as being too revolutionary.
Revolution and Reform, 1830-1850 • Another French Revolution • Charles X (1824-1830) • Liberals were winning elections which angered the king • Issued the July Ordinances • Rigid censorship • Dissolved the legislative assembly • Reduced the electorate in preparation for new elections • Immediate revolt by liberals
Louis-Philippe (1830-1848) • Group of moderate liberals appealed to Louis-Philippe, the Duke of Orleans to become the constitutional king of France • Charles X fled to Great Britain & a new monarchy was born • The bourgeois monarch – support for his rule came from the upper middle class • Constitutional changes favor the upper bourgeoisie • Lower bourgeoisie & working class are disappointed that they are excluded from political power
Revolutionary Outbursts in Belgium, Poland, and Italy (Nationalism) • Primary driving force for these three 1830 revolution was nationalism. • Austrian Netherlands (Catholic Belgium) given to (Protestant) Dutch Republic by the Congress of Vienna • Nationalistic revolt by the Belgians (Protestants) established a constitutional monarchy • Revolt attempts in Poland and Italy • Austrians crushed Italian revolution • Russians crushed Polish revolution
Possible Test Question • The most successful nationalistic European revolution in 1830 was in • Poland. • Germany. • Italy. • The United Provinces. • Belgium.
Reform in Great Britain • The Reform Act of 1832 • New political power for industrial urban communities (Whigs take power over Tories) • July Revolution in France set the stage for change • Benefited the upper middle class (wealthy industrial middle class) • Reform Act of 1832 – Industrial communities gained a voice in voting • Number of voters increased from 478,000 – 814,000 • Artisans, industrial workers & lower middle classes still had no vote • New Reform Legislation • Poor Law of 1834 – based on the theory that giving aid to the poor & unemployed would encourage laziness • The poor were crowded into workhouses where the living & working conditions were intentionally miserable so people would be encouraged to find employment • Repeal of the Corn Laws (1846) • Economic liberals advocated free trade & lower bread prices for workers
Possible Test Question • The Reform Bill of 1832 in Britain primarily benefited the • Landed aristocracy. • Peasants. • Working class. • Clergy. • Upper middle-class.
The Revolutions of 1848 • Yet Another French Revolution • 1846 – agricultural & industrial depression • 1847 – 33% unemployment rate in Paris • Government was corrupt & failed to initiate reform • No suffrage for the middle class • Louis-Philippe abdicates, February 24, 1848 (fled to Britain) • Provisional government established • Elections to be by universal manhood suffrage • National workshops – jobs for unemployed • Growing split between moderate and liberal republicans • Moderate Government – most of France • Radical liberals – Parisian working class
Provisional government established workshops under the influence of Louis Blanc • Unemployed workers got jobs raking leafs, ditch digging & other manual labor jobs • Unemployed workers in the national workshops rose from 10,000 to 120,000, emptying the treasury & prompting moderates to halt the programs • Became little more than unemployment compensation units through public works projects • Workers refused to except the decision leading to four days of fighting in this working class revolt (government prevailed) • Second Republic established • New Constitution ratified • Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was elected in December, 1848 (nephew of Napoleon)
Revolution in Central Europe • French revolts led to promises of reform • Frederick William IV (1840-1861) • Germanic state rulers made concessions to the growing revolutionary sentiments • Freedom of press, abolishing censorship, new constitutions, & working towards a united Germany • Frankfurt Assembly • All German parliament elected by universal male suffrage • Purpose was to prepare a constitution for a united Germany • Frederick William IV refused the offer of “emperor of the Germans” • Frankfurt Assembly disbanded without accomplishing their goal of a united Germany
Possible Test Question • In 1848, the Frankfurt Assembly • Unanimously adopted a Grossdeutsch solution for the Germanies. • Succeeded in making Prussia’s Frederick William IV president of a united Germany. • Failed in its attempt to create a united Germany. • Gained the support of Austria. • Declared its solidarity with revolutionary France.
Austrian Empire Louis Kossuth, Hungary • Advocated the formation of a legislature • Metternich flees the country after demonstrations begin & he is dismissed from office • In Vienna, revolutionary forces took control calling for a constituent assembly • Hungary’s wishes granted • Own Legislature • National army • Control over its foreign policy & budget
Austria Cont’d • Emperor Ferdinand I & Austrian officials made concessions to revolutionaries but waited for an opportunity to reassert conservative control • Tried to capitalize on division between radical & moderate revolutionaries • Military forces suppressed Czech rebels • Ferdinand I abdicated in favor of his nephew • Francis Joseph I (1848-1916) • Nicholas I of Russia sent in troops to defeat Kossuth’s forces and suppress the revolution • Austrian emperor & propertied classes remained in power
Revolts in the Italian States • Giuseppe Mazzini (1805-1872) • Risorgimento - resurgence • Founded organization called Young Italy, 1831 • Goal: a united Italy • Cristina Belgioioso (1808-1871) • Wealthy aristocrat who worked for a united Italy • Italian citizens rose up in 1848 • Charles Albert (r. 1831 – 1849) • King of Italian state of Piedmont took up to the call for a war of liberation from Austria • The revolution (resurgence) was defeated by combined forces from the Pope, France and Austria.
Possible Test Question • Giuseppe Mazzini’s nationalist organization, Young Italy, • Liberated Italy’s northern provinces from Austrian control. • Failed to achieve his goal of “resurgence” by 1849. • Helped inspire successful liberal constitutions throughout Italy. • Used the liberals in governments to extend suffrage to Italy’s working classes. • Allied itself with the papacy to drive France out of Italy.
The Failures of 1848 • Division within the revolutionaries • Radicals and liberals • Liberties from propertied classes failed to extend male suffrage to the working classes • Liberals were concerned about their property & security & the fear of a social revolution by the working class • Divisions among nationalities • Hungarians demanded autonomy from Austrians but refused to offer the same autonomy to their minorities
The Maturing of the United States • The American Constitution contained forces of liberalism and nationalism • Alexander Hamilton (1757-1804), Federalist • Favored a financial program that would establish a strong central government • Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), Republican • Feared centralization & consequences for popular liberties • Effects of War of 1812 • Brought an end to the Federalists who had opposed the war • John Marshall (1755-1835) • Strengthened the Supreme Court (checks Congress) • Andrew Jackson (1767-1845) and democracy • Male suffrage – dropped property qualification
The Emergence of an Ordered Society • Development of a regular system of police • Purpose of police • Preserve property & lives, maintain domestic order, investigate crime, & arrest offenders & to create a disciplined law-abiding society • French Police – Known as Serfients • First appearance of new kind of police in Paris • British Bobbies • “Bobbies” introduced in 1829 – 1830 • Goal was to prevent crime • Crime and Social Reform • New poor laws • Moral reformers • Organized religion • Prison Reform • The United States takes the lead (Auburn Prison in New York, Walnut Street Prison in Philadelphia) • Prison reform in France and Britain