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Chapter 21

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Chapter 21

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  1. Chapter 21 Training for Anaerobic and Aerobic Power McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

  2. Training Principles • Overload principle • Overload may be achieved using a combination of • Intensity • Duration • Frequency McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

  3. Training Principles • Specificity principle • Exercise training specificity • Specificity of O2max • Specificity of local changes • Individual differences principle • Reversibility principle • Detraining McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

  4. Anaerobic System Changes with Training • Increases in resting muscle levels of • ATP • PCr • Free creatine • Glycogen • Glycolytic enzymes • Resulting in increased capacity to generate blood lactate McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

  5. Aerobic System Changes with Training • Metabolic adaptations include • Number and size of mitochondria • Aerobic system enzymes • Fat and carbohydrate metabolism • Muscle fiber type and size • Myoglobin concentration McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

  6. Aerobic System Changes with Training • Cardiovascular adaptations • Cardiac hypertrophy: the “athlete’s heart” • Plasma volume • Heart rate • Stroke volume • Cardiac output • Oxygen extraction (a- O2 difference) • Blood flow and distribution • Blood pressure McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

  7. McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

  8. Aerobic System Changes with Training • Pulmonary adaptations with training • Maximal exercise • Increases ventilation • Submaximal exercise • Reduces the ventilatory equivalent for oxygen • Tidal volume increases and breathing frequency decreases • Training may benefit ventilatory endurance. McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

  9. Aerobic System Changes with Training • Blood lactate concentration • Decreased production • Increased clearance McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

  10. Other Aerobic Training Adaptations • Body composition changes • Increased lean mass • Decreased fat mass • Body heat transfer • Performance changes • Psychologic benefits McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

  11. McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

  12. Factors that Affect the Aerobic Training Response • Initial level of aerobic fitness • Training intensity • Training duration • Training frequency McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

  13. Training Intensity • Overload intensity • Train at a percentage of HRmax • 55 – 70% HRmax to get a training effect • Age-predicted maximum heart rates • Karvonen method • Perception of effect • Lactate threshold McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

  14. McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

  15. ACSM’s Updated Fitness Guidelines and Recommendations • Cardiovascular • 40 – 85% of O2max • 55 –90% HR max • 3 or more days per week • 20 – 60 minutes McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

  16. ACSM’s Updated Fitness Guidelines and Recommendations • Muscular strength • One set of 8 – 10 different exercises • 8 – 12 reps • 2 – 3 days per week • Joint flexibility • Static and dynamic range of motion exercises, 4 reps • 2 to 3 times per week McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

  17. Trainability and Genes • Responses to training are very dependent upon genetics. • Responder vs. nonresponder McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

  18. Maintenance of Aerobic Fitness Gains • Intensity plays principal role • Tapering for peak performance McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

  19. Methods of Training • Anaerobic training • Intramuscular high-energy phosphates • Lactate-generating capacity • Aerobic training • Interval training • Continuous training • Fartlek training McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

  20. Overtraining • Sympathetic form • Hyperexcitability • Restlessness • Impaired performance • Parasympathetic form • Increased vagal activity at rest • Chronic fatigue during exercise and recovery McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

  21. McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

  22. Selected mechanisms underlying genesis of overtraining syndrome in endurance sports • Overload • Overreaching • Overtraining syndrome McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

  23. Exercising During Pregnancy • Exercise effects on the mother • Increases in • Blood volume • Resting oxygen consumption • Resting heart rate • Ventilatory response to exercise McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

  24. Exercising During Pregnancy • Exercise effects on the fetus • Reduced placental blood flow • Fetal hyperthermia • Reduced fetal glucose supply McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition