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Chapter 21

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Chapter 21

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  1. Chapter 21 Immunologic Medications

  2. Chapter 21 Lesson 21.1

  3. Learning Objectives • Define common terms used in immunology • Explain the differences between the three different types of immunity • Outline typical immunization plans for children and adults • List the major adverse reactions of common immunologic drugs • Identify at least three drugs used for in vivo testing

  4. Immune System • Antigen = a bacterium, virus, or foreign protein that invades the body • Antibody = special proteins made by the body in response to sensing the foreign antigen • Antigen-antibody response = a specific antigen causes the body to produce a specific antibody that reacts specifically with that antigen

  5. The Lymphatic System

  6. Immunity Types of Immunity • Naturally acquired active immunity: person has had the disease and made antibodies; antibodies remain for life • Artificially acquired active immunity: person is given a live or weakened (attenuated) antigen in a vaccine to stimulate antibody production to prevent specific diseases for an extended time; “boosters” may be necessary

  7. Immunity (cont.) Types of Immunity (cont.) • Passive immunity • Naturally acquired passive immunity • Antibodies pass from mother to infant through breast milk • Artificially acquired passive immunity • Immunoglobulins are injected into a person who does not have immunity to the antigen

  8. Immunization Schedule The Following Vaccines Are Recommended: • Hepatitis B • Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis • Haemophilus influenzae type b • Inactivated poliovirus • Measles, mumps, rubella • Varicella • Pneumococcal • Influenza • Hepatitis A (for selected populations)

  9. Immunologic Medications • Vaccines = attenuated or killed antigens in a formula that produces an antigen-antibody response in the body • Toxoids = attenuated or weakened toxins that produce an antitoxin response, causing immunity in the body

  10. Immunologic Medications (cont.) Action • Produce immunity in the body Uses • Routine schedule of active immunizations for adults and children • Specific biologic agents for endemic disease areas • Specific biologic agents to people at high risk • Screening for disease exposure • Modify disease process in immunized persons

  11. Immunologic Medications (cont.) Adverse Reactions • Mild reactions common: mild local pain and swelling at site • Occasional effects include altered levels of consciousness, headache, lethargy, rash, urticaria, vesiculation, diarrhea, increased respiratory rate, arthralgia, dyspnea, fever, lymphadenopathy, and malaise.

  12. Immunologic Medications (cont.) Drug Interactions Nursing Implications and Patient Teaching • Assess health history, immunization status, allergies to eggs or feathers, presence of infection, use of immunosuppressants, pregnancy