Chapter 21 The Height of Imperialism: 1800-1914
Colonial Rule in Southeast Asia • A new form of imperialism began in the 1880’s, focusing on Africa and Asia. • European powers like Great Britain, France, Spain, and Netherland began to grab as much land as possible in these parts of the world.
The United States • By the 1890’s, the U.S. also focused on colonialism in Asia. As a result of the Spanish- American War, the U.S. occupied the Philippines. • The people of the Philippines initially supported the U.S., in order to get rid of the Spanish, but soon wanted the U.S. to leave as well. The U.S. stayed.
Imperialism as a Form of Racism • Countries that were occupied by larger powers, were consistently made up of persons of color. The oppressors were from Europe and the United States, who were predominantly white countries. • The influence of economic gain was consistently given priority over natural law and human rights.
Who Controls What? • Indirect rule was based upon the government of local people by local leaders, who reported back to England, France, or the U.S. • Direct rule was a policy in which the countries occupied by imperialist nations, like Germany, Spain, or the Netherlands, were controlled and ruled by representatives of those countries, not local leaders.
The Protectorate • Countries that were taken over by larger nations from Europe or the U.S. were often times considered protectorates. These countries were influenced politically by the larger nations, in order to receive the military protection of that larger nation. Basically, “Do what I say, and I’ll protect you. Don’t do what I say, and I’ll wipe you off the face of the earth” politics.
Section 3:British Rule in India • The Sepoy Mutiny was the result of the British forcing their Indian contractors, the Sepoys, to use new weapons that required both Hindu and Muslim soldiers to use ammunition that was packed in pig and beef fat. Both Hindus and Muslims do not touch pig and beef fat. • The mutiny failed because the Hindus and Muslims were divided amongst each other.
The British placed an official to rule over India, as a result of the Sepoy Mutiny. • The viceroy was a direct representative of the monarch (king or queen) of Great Britain. • Although the British established a formal educational system in India, it was only affordable for the upper class citizens in India.
The citizens of India created the Indian National Congress in 1885, to have representation in the Indian government. • Mohandas Gandhi was first a lawyer and member of the INC, and became a peaceful activist for Indian independence from Great Britain in the 1930’s and 1940’s.
Section 4: Latin America • The 1800’s saw Spanish colonies in Latin America begin to gain their independence. • The Mexicans began to revolt against the Spanish, in 1810. The Mexicans were led by a priest, Miguel Hidalgo, as well as local Indians andMestizos, who were of mixed European and Indian descent. • Although Hidalgo failed in his revolt, the Mexicans did finally declare independence from Spain in 1821.
During the same period, many South American countries fought against Spain for their independence. Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela, Bolivia, and Chile, were just a few of these South American countries in become independent, by 1824. • Brazil became independent of Portugal in 1822, and by 1938, the Central American countries, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Costa Rica were also free of Spanish rule.
U.S. president James Monroe declared that all countries in Latin American were to be free of European colonialism, and were now under the protection of the United States. That declaration was known as the Monroe Doctrine. • With European interference no longer an issue, many natural resources found in Latin American countries became the target for American businesses.
Resources, such as sugar, tobacco, coffee, and wool essentially created an economic imperialism in these countries, despite being politically independent. • In the early 1900’s, the U.S. built the Panama Canal to cut down on the time needed to travel from New York to San Francisco, around the southern tip of South American. The Panama Canal reduced the time by almost 8000 miles.
The Spanish-American War in 1898 got the Spanish out of the Western Hemisphere for good, and established for the U.S. a naval base in Cuba, as well as claiming Puerto Rico as an annexation. • Additionally, a revolution in Mexico created instability south of the U.S. border, which required the United States, in 1916, to send military forces into Mexico to defeat Poncho Villa, who was raiding towns inside the U.S., and killing American civilians there.
One positive byproduct to come from the U.S. imperialism in Latin America was the economic growth in those countries. • The lower class, as in Africa, Asia, and India, were left with very little. The rich continued to get rich, and the poor continued to be poor, despite being in the majority. • Largely unaffected by the changes in Latin America, U.S. businesses continued to take advantage of the economic prosperity to be found in Latin and South America, while not caring for the people of those regions.
CHAPTER 21 VOCABULARY WORDS, pp. 644-679 • IMPERIALISM – 648 PROTECTORATE- 649 • INDIRECT RULE- 651 ANNEXED – 655 • INDIGENOUS – 658 SEPOYS – 666 • VICEROY – 667 CREOLES – 672 • PENINSULARES – 672 MESTIZOS – 672 • MONROE DOCTRINE – 673 CAUDILLOS – 674