Welcome to IHE Geography :Geography of FoodSemester 2 Teacher : Mrs Ruth ANN-LOH Office : Main Staffroom, Level 2 (Above GO) Tel : 64651073 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org MSN : email@example.com FB : Ruth ANN LOH
Geography of Food • Introduction to food consumption, production and distribution • 1. Housekeeping/syllabus • 2. Types of farming system/agricultural economy • 2.1 arable, pastoral, mixed farming • 2.2 subsistence & commercial faming • 2.3 sedentary and nomadic (migratory) • 2.4 extensive and intensive farming • 2.5 Case studies – MEDC and LEDC • 3. World farming types and distribution
Farming is an industry and operates like other industries. It is a system with: OUTPUTS:These are the products of the farm. If the farm is to make a profit the value of the outputs should be greater than that of the inputs. INPUTS: These are what go into a farm and can be divided into physical, human and economic inputs. PROCESSES:These are the activities on the farm which turn the inputs into outputs.
Inputs Processes Outputs labour capital seeds animals fertilisers pesticides ploughing sowing spraying adding fertiliser harvesting grazing milking wheat potatoes barley seeds crop waste milk hides wool eggs profit Farming system
The Farmer is very important and is the DECISION-MAKER. Each individual farmers decision on what crops to grow or animals to rear, and which methods to use to maximise output, depends on an UNDERSTANDING of the most favourable physical and economic conditions for the farm. Sometimes, the farmer may have several choices and so the decision may depend upon individual likes and expertise. On other occasions the choice may be limited by extreme physical conditions or economic or political pressures.
Farming can be classified by Inputs, Processes or Outputs INTENSIVE orEXTENSIVE ARABLE, PASTORAL or MIXED SUBSISTENCE or COMMERCIAL
Arable Pastoral Commercial Subsistence What are the different types of farming? Mixed Farming: Grows crops and rears animals Concentrates on rearing of animals. Only grows crops e.g. arable farms in East Anglia. Producing food only to feed themselves and their families. In LEDC’s most farming is subsistence. Farmers grow crops and rear animals to sell in order to make a profit. In MEDC’s most farming is commercial.
Extensive Intensive Where the farm size is very large compared with either the amount of money spent on it or the number of people working there. Where the farm is small in size compared to the numbers working there or the amount of money spent on it, ie have high inputs of labour or capital (money) in order to achieve high outputs per hectare or yield. NOMADIC Nomadic farmers move around to find fresh pasture for animals or new plots of land to cultivate. SEDENTARY: Settlement is permanent and the landscape is farmed every year.
Classification by INPUT • INTENSIVE farming – high levels of input producing a high yield per hectare. Examples include, arable farming in East Anglia, England and rice farming in South East Asia. • EXTENSIVE farming – low levels of input producing a low yield per hectare. Example, sheep farming in North Wales
Classification by PROCESSES Arable vs. Pastoral Arable Growing and harvesting of crops Pastoral Specialise in rearing of animals Mixed Both pastoral and arable farming
Classification by OUTPUT • SUBSISTENCE farming Produce is consumed by the farmer, any surplus is usually sold to buy other goods • COMMERCIAL farming The majority of produce is sold to make financial profit
What effects the distribution of farming ? The main factors affecting the distribution of farming are: • Climate • Relief (shape of the land) • Soil type • Accessibility to the market and labour supply
CASE STUDY : PRIMARY INDUSTRY IN UK (MEDC)VINE HOUSE FARM,LINCOLNSHIRE.
CASE STUDY : VINE HOUSE FARM,EAST ANGLIA (LEDC)(an arable farm) Where is it ? What are the inputs, outputs, processes ? (systems diagram) How has it changed ?
CASE STUDY : VINE HOUSE FARM,EAST ANGLIA(an arable farm) Don’t forget to include KEYWORDS !! Include simple FACTS !! Ask yourself these questions; 1. Where is it ? 2. What are the inputs, outputs, processes ? (systems diagram) 3. How has it changed ? Remember to describe its LOCATION. Summarise- You can’t learn it all
MEDC : United Kingdom(Detailed)- The different types of farming system
FARMING IN THE UK Market Gardening involves intensive farming of high value fruit and salad vegetables in greenhouses
FARMING IN THE UK Sheep and beef cattle are reared for wool and meat, mainly in upland areas
FARMING IN THE UK Dairy Farming is the rearing of cows for milk, usually in flatter areas - good grass so lush pastures
FARMING IN THE UK Arable Farming in the UK is mainly cereal crops, but also vegetables and animal feeds
The farm has a flock of 400 ewes and a herd of 60 cows as well as many horses, ponies, goats, donkeys and chickens. South Penquite Farm • South Penquite is a 80 hectare working hill farm situated high on Bodmin Moor in Cornwall.
South Penquite Farm • The farm has achieved organic status under the guidance of the Soil Association. • It takes two years to convert the land over which time they have not used any pesticides or nitrogen fertilizers. • South Penquite started the conversion to becoming an organic farm in May 1999 and from June 2001 they have been able to offer organic beef and lamb.
Riding Holidays Field Studies Camping South Penquite Farm • The farm has diversified. • They offer a range of countryside holidays which include camping and horse riding. For the camping they have a limited number of pitches to minimize the impact on the environment. They also have facilities for field studies and opportunities for educational groups to learn about local environment.
World : Agriculture http://go-passport.grolier.com/atlas?id=mtlr079