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  1. 研究論文寫作Research Paper Writing 尚惠芳 教授兼系主任 義守大學應用英語學系 98學年度第二學期 1

  2. Outline • Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research • Literature Review and Research Problems • Survey Research • Qualitative Methods • Mixed-Methods and Mixed-Model Designs • Sampling • Data Collection • Data Analysis, Interpretation, and Reporting • Writing Research Paper 2

  3. Section I Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research 3

  4. Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research ( by James Neill) 4

  5. Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research 5

  6. Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research 6

  7. Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research 7

  8. Section II Literature Review and Research Problems 8

  9. Literature Review and Research Problems I. Why Do a Literature Review? A. for planning primary research: 1. find a lack of consistency in reported results 2. find a flaw in research methods 3. conduct on a different population 4. find a solution for a problem 5. uncertainty about the interpretation 9

  10. Literature Review and Research Problems B. As an end in itself: 1. inform practice (e.g. solve a problem) 2. provide understanding about the topic (longer process for integrative research review) 10

  11. Literature Review and Research Problems II. What Is the Search Process? A. Nine steps: 1. Identify a research topic (cause → effect) 2. Review secondary sources to get an overview (review article) 3. Develop a search strategy (collect databases, titles, abstract, full texts) 4. Conduct the search (search the sources) 11

  12. Literature Review and Research Problems 5. Get a copy of the article 6. Read and prepare bibliographic information and notes 7. Evaluate the research reports (identify major points) 8. Analyze the research findings and synthesize the results (narrative and statistical methods) 9. Use the literature review (based on major points) 12

  13. Literature Review and Research Problems III. Research Questions and Hypotheses: A. four categories of research questions: 1. descriptive 2. normative 3. correlative 4. impact 13

  14. Literature Review and Research Problems 1. Descriptive questions: Provide information about what is or has been happening related to the research topic (e.g., What is the major difficulty for EFL writers?) 2. Normative questions: Provide information compared with some standard or expected observation (e.g., Will EFL teachers achieve a better quality if they get a teaching certificate?) 14

  15. Literature Review and Research Problems 3. Correlative questions: Identify relationship (e.g., What is the relationship between the year of training in writing and ss’ writing performance?) 4. Impact questions: Identify effect (e.g., What is the effect of teachers’ positive comments on ss’ writing performance?) 15

  16. Literature Review and Research Problems 4-1. Two types of hypotheses: → directional hypothesis: can expect the outcome (from literature review) e.g., “Ifss can get teachers’ positive comments, (then) they will have a better writing performance” → null hypothesis: can not expect the outcome e.g., “There is no difference between teachers’ positive comments and ss’ writing performance” 16

  17. Literature Review and Research Problems IV. In Summary, the Purposes of Literature Review: • Provide previous research results (big picture) • Provide a need for additional research (problem) • Develop a conceptual framework (from major points to generate research questions and hypotheses) • Guide the research design and conduct the study 17

  18. Section III Survey Research 18

  19. Survey Research • I. Main Purpose of Survey (Quantitative) Research: • Collect data from a larger number of people • Rely on individuals’ self-reports of their knowledge, • attitudes, or behaviors • II. Design Phase: • Write the purpose of the survey (like a thesis statement) • Write research questions based on the purpose (thesis) 19

  20. Survey Research • III. Three Design Considerations: • Descriptive approach • Cross-sectional approach • Longitudinal approach 20

  21. Survey Research • Descriptive approach: A survey describing • the characteristics of a sample at one point in • time (e.g., senior students’ research paper • writing difficulties in the Department of • Applied English at I-Shou University in 2009) 21

  22. Survey Research • Cross-sectional approach: A survey examining • several groups at one point in time (e.g., different • grade level students’ writing difficulties in the AE • Department at ISU in 2009) • Pro: Compare responses across different grade levels in a shorter time • Con: Not easy to make a comparison due to different subjects 22

  23. Survey Research • Longitudinal approach: A survey examining one • group at different points in time (e.g., 1-year, 2- • year-, and 3-year graduates’ perceptions of RP • course in the AE Department at ISU in 2006-2008) • Pro: Follow the same subjects over a period of time • Con: Take a longer time 23

  24. Survey Research • IV. Data Collection Choices: Mail, telephone, personal interviews, email, web-based surveys, etc. • Mail: • Pro: Collect closed-ended information; low cost; enough time for the respondents • Con: Lower response rates; no more in-depth information 24

  25. Survey Research • Phone interviews: • Pro: Collect open-ended information; higher response rate; more additional information • Con: More costly; can’t observe participants’ body language and facial expressions 25

  26. Survey Research • Personal interviews: • Pro: Less structured approach; more conversational style; easy to get additional information; highest response rate • Con: Take more time 26

  27. Survey Research • V. Sampling Plan: • Identification of participants: Identify the • participants who have the information you want or • who have experienced the event • Population definition: More specific about the • participants’ sources 27

  28. Survey Research • Two Sampling decisions: 1. Probability sampling: Need to specify to whom the results will be generalized 1-1.Sampling frame: to give a list of people who have a chance to be selected 1-2. Only choose the population included in the sampling frame 2. Purposeful sampling: Need to provide sufficient details about the important characteristics of the participants 28

  29. Survey Research • Three sources of sampling errors: • Coverage errors: (a) should be in the sampling frame, but not there, (b) should not be in the frame, but in there 2. Nonresponse errors: (a) refuse to be interviewed, (b) can’t complete questionnaire, (c) can’t be reached 3. Sampling errors: Use different (wrong) sampling strategies drawn from a population 29

  30. Survey Research VI. Designing the Questionnaire: A. Review the literature: Borrow what has been designed before (with appropriate citations and permissions) B.Develop your own questionnaire: 1. follow Delphi Technique: Ask experts to provide ideas for better questionnaire, and then do a pilot testing with a larger sample 30

  31. Survey Research 2. Explain to yourself why asking each question 3. Decide format: Open (answer questions in own words) or closed format (multiple-choice, true-false, checklist) 4. Do a pilot study to include all alternative responses 5. Avoid psychologically threatening (socially desirable) questions 6. Clear items: Provide a definition of the terms first 7. Short items 31

  32. Survey Research 8. Avoid negative wording questions (e.g., Which of these are not ……?) 9. Avoid items that ask more than one idea 10.Use appropriate word level 11.Avoid leading questions 12.Emphasize critical words by using italics or underlining or bold letters 32

  33. Survey Research • VII. Formatting the Questionnaire: • Make it attractive • Organize and lay out the questions • Number the items and pages • Put the returned address and name at the beginning and end of the questionnaire • Include brief, clear instructions 33

  34. Survey Research 6. Use examples if necessary 7. Organize the questions in a logical sequence (from general to specific) 8. Begin with a few interesting and nonthreatening items 9. Do not put the most important items at the end 10.Avoid using questionnaire or checklist on the form (use the title “Response Form”) 34

  35. Survey Research • VIII. Pilot Testing the Questionnaire: • Select a sample similar to your population • Give more spaces for writing comments • Encourage pilot participants to give suggestions • Follow the procedures that you plan to use in your study • Add, change, or delete any questions if necessary 35

  36. Survey Research IX. Special Types of Questions: 1. Demographic questions: 1-1. Background information (e.g., gender, age, etc.) 2. Nonthreatening behavioral questions: 2-1. Ask general questions on usual behavior first 2-2. Bounded recall: “e.g., In the last year……..” 2-3. Wording of question: “e.g., Are your difficulties in writing a research paper mainly due to your grammar problem?” 36

  37. Survey Research 3. Threatening behavioral questions: Any questions elicit a defensive reaction in the participant; better to use : 3-1. open-ended questions 3-2. longer questions with explanations 3-3. familiar words 3-4. put answers into sealed envelopes 3-5. use appropriate wording (e.g., “Did you ever happen to ….”, “Such behaviors occur with different frequencies….”) 3-6. use multiple measures until getting the truth 37

  38. Survey Research 4. Knowledge questions: Ask questions to test participants’ knowledge of a subject in school; better to use: 4-1. knowledge questions before asking attitude questions 4-2. appropriate level of difficulty 4-3. avoid asking “Do you happen to know …..?” 4-4. avoid using mail survey (may check up the answer) 38

  39. Survey Research 5. Attitude questions: Should give a definition of the term or concept in advance; better to ask: 5-1. three kinds of attitudes: 5-1-1. affective (like vs. dislike): How does the person feel about this? 5-1-2. cognitive (knowledge): What does the person know about this? 5-1-3. action: What is the person willing to do about this? 39

  40. Survey Research 5-2. assess attitude strength (e.g., How much do you like or dislike ….?) 5-3. avoid asking more than one concept (e.g., Would you vote for me and peace or my opponent and war?) 5-4. use bipolar questions (e.g., Are you satisfied or dissatisfied with …….?) 5-5. move on to measure degree of positive or negative attitude (e.g., Are you strongly satisfied or moderately satisfied with …….?) 5-6. Use five points/alternatives on the rating scale 40

  41. Survey Research • X. Letter of Transmittal: A cover letter to specify the purpose of the survey; hints to motivate the returned questionnaires • Appeal to authority: Need the well-known person’s signature • Appeal to self-interest: “You are one of the few people with the intelligence to be able to help us with this issue.” • Appeal to professional interests: “This is a very important question in our field (society).” 41

  42. Survey Research 4. Appeal to altruism: “The results of this survey will be used to solve one of our students’ writing problems.” 5. Appeal to curiosity: Offer to send a copy of the results 6. Appeal to greed: Offer to send a monetary incentive (a small gift) 7. Appeal to a sense of connection: Enclose a tea bag or a pencil (more details will be shown in the consent form) 42

  43. Survey Research • XI. Conducting the Survey: • Send out an advance (cover) letter • Enclose the questionnaire with the transmittal letter • Supervise the data collection • Send a follow-up to nonrespondents • 4-1. send again • 4-2. send a postcard reminder • 4-3. make a call • 5. Control processing errors (eg., response rate) • 6. Enter the data into the database • 7. Clean up the data before you begin analysis 43

  44. Survey Research • XII. Notes Specific to Personal Interviews: • Hold an introductory meeting to share the purpose, and get assurance to participate • Schedule the interview time • Make a flexible interview • Don’t use yes or no questions; plan to ask open-ended questions (e.g., How do you feel about …..? What is you opinion about …..? What do you think about ….?) • Conclude with open-ended questions: (e.g., Is there anything that I didn’t ask about…..? Is there anything that you wanted to tell me….?) • Pretest your interview procedures 44

  45. Survey Research • XIII. Starting and Conducting the Interview: • Briefly review the purpose of the interview and information needed • Focus on what the participant is saying • Sequence the questions from general to specific • Ask for specific examples • Ask a variety of different kinds of questions • Avoid asking “why” questions; better to use “how come” • Use role play or simulation questions (If I were your …..) • Record the interview and take notes 45

  46. Section IV Qualitative Method 46

  47. Qualitative Method • I. Main Purpose of Qualitative Research: • Provide in-depth descriptions to interpret something • by using case study, personal experiences, interview, • observation • Complexity, contextual, exploration, discovery, • inductive logic 47

  48. Qualitative Method II. Strategies for Qualitative Research: 1. Ethnographic research: Describe and analyze practices and beliefs of cultures and communities by interacting with people in their everyday lives 2. Case study: Detailed study of one individual (of a group) through observation 48

  49. Qualitative Method 3. Phenomenological research: Seek the individual’s perceptions and meaning of a phenomenon or experience; “what is the meaning of the experience of this phenomenon for this person or group of people?” 49

  50. Qualitative Method 4. Grounded theory: Develop a theory after gathering and analyzing the data 5. Participatory research: Co-research the issue cooperatively 6. Clinical research: Understand a problem within a clinical context 7. Focus groups: Observe the interaction within the group (e.g., group interviews) 50