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Underwater Fireworks

Underwater Fireworks

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Underwater Fireworks

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  1. Underwater Fireworks Kiera Schiavo

  2. Objectives • Differentiate between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons • Understand transformation of alkanes to alkenes, and vice versa • Understand interesting reaction between halogens and unsaturated hydrocarbons

  3. Hydrocarbons • Unsaturated Hydrocarbon: hydrocarbons that have double or triple covalent bonds between adjacent carbon atoms. • Saturated Hydrocarbon: chemical compounds that consist only of the elements carbon and hydrogen and these atoms are linked together exclusively by single bonds. • Different due to the number of bonds

  4. Unsaturated to Saturated • Hydrogenation: a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen and another compound or element to saturate organic compounds. • Hydrogen is passed through the compound to saturate it. • Double and triple bonds are replaced with single bonds and a maximum hydrogen content

  5. Synonyms • Alkane = Saturated hydrocarbon, containing only single bonds. • Alkene = Unsaturated hydrocarbon, containing double bonds. • Alkyne = Unsaturated hydrocarbon, containing triple bonds. • Transformation due to hydrogenation

  6. Halogens and Unsaturated Hydrocarbons • Halogen Addition Reaction: Simple organic reaction where a halogen molecule is added to the carbon–carbon double bond of an alkene functional group. • Halogen in underwater fireworks is Chlorine • The more stable the alkene the faster it is formed • Factors that stabilize the alkene also stabilize the incipient alkene in the transition state • This lowers activation energy

  7. Activation energy • Activation energy: The minimum quantity of energy that the reacting species must possess in order to undergo a specified reaction. • Many reactions require high temperatures before they can begin.. • However, in reactions like those between halogens and unsaturated hydrocarbons the activation energy is low enough for the reaction to occur spontaneously at room temperature.

  8. Experiment • When CaC2 is placed in water acetylene gas is produced. • Acetylene gas is an alkyne • Cl2 gas is produced in the flask containing HCl and bleach • As the two types of bubbles collide, they create enough energy to initiate a reaction • Chlorine is electron-attracting • Able to break the triple bond so electrons can bond with the chlorine atoms. • Exothermic reaction • More energy is released by bond breaking than needed to build C-Cl bonds. • Excess energy is seen as flashes of light

  9. Working Experiment! • http://www.metacafe.com/watch/463291/underwater_fireworks_experiment/