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Chapter 1 World History

Chapter 1 World History

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Chapter 1 World History

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  1. Chapter 1 World History Section 1: Ancient Greece and Rome

  2. Athens Builds a Limited Democracy • Democracy comes from Greek roots – demos (people) and kratos (rule) • Basic political unit of Greece was the city-state, due to geography • Athens was a monarchy until 683 BCE • Comprehension check • What was the basic political unit of Greece? • Why was this so? • If Athens was a monarchy, would it be difficult to change to a democracy?

  3. Who was allowed to vote? • By 683, Athens had developed into an aristocracy • That is a state ruled by the noble class • Each year an assembly of citizens elected three nobles to rule • Citizens were adult males who were granted certain rights and responsibilities

  4. What were the reforms of Solon? • Solon outlawed slavery based on debt and canceled the farmers’ debt • This avoided civil war and revolution • Solon created 4 classes of citizenship based on wealth • Only citizens of the 3 highest classes could hold office • All free adult males were citizens • Created a council of 400 – it prepared the business for the already existing council

  5. How was Athens limited as a democracy? • Aristocracy was still dominant • Only citizens could participate, 1/10 of the population were citizens • Women, slaves, and foreign residents could not be citizens • Slaves were 1/3 of the population

  6. What were the reforms of Cleisthenes? • Solon was succeeded by individuals who appealed to the poor and the masses to gain power. • Cleisthenes worked toward making Athens a full democracy • Break up power of nobility • Allow citizens to submit laws for debate and passage • Created a council of 500 a. Proposed laws and counseled the assembly

  7. Changes in Greek Democracy • 500s BCE Persian Empire rapidly expanding • 490 BCE – invasion of Athens and the Battle of Marathon • 480 BCE, Xerxes sent a force to crush Greece • Battle of Thermopylae • Battle of Salamis • Battle of Plataea Persians were defeated in 479 BCE

  8. Pericles strengthens democracy • Athenians held public debates during the Persian Wars on how to defend the city • Pericles led Athens for 32 years – 461 – 429 BCE • Athens became the leader of an alliance of 140 city-states called the Delian League • Once the Persians were completely driven from the area, Athens began to dominate other league members