Paleo/lithic (Old/Stone) AgeYuanmou Man; Homo erectus lantianensis; Peking Man; Upper Cave Man • The Paleolithic (from Greek: (paleo-) "old" + (lithos) "stone") Age, Era, or Period, is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of the first stone tools, and covers roughly 99% of human technological history. It is featured with • 1. Use of fire; • 2. Make/use of knapped stone tools, ; • 3. Use of wood or bone tools; • 4. Matriarchal Society
Peking Man (500,000 B. C. E)680,000-780,000 years old • Peking Man (北京猿人 Běijīng Yuánrén), also called Sinanthropus pekinensis (currently Homo erectus pekinensis), is an example of Homo erectus. A group of fossil specimens was discovered in 1923-27 during excavations at Zhoukoudian (Chou K'ou-tien) near Beijing (known as Peking at that time), China.
Peking ManTool Makers and Tool Users • Conꞌtiguous findings of animal remains and evidence of fire and tool usage, as well as the manufacturing of tools, were used to support H. erectus being the first "faber" or tool-worker.
http://www.unesco.org/ext/field/beijing/whc/pkm-site.htm • Note this goes beyond the level of survival; • As a necklace, art is born;
The Importance of the Use of fire • drilling wood to make fire by friction • 钻木取火 • Sui Ren 燧人, Chinese Prometheus--first use of fire • 食/饣【shí】 eat; (cooked) food; radical number 184. • dōng xué xià cháo zhī shí • 冬 穴 夏 巢 之 時， • rú máo yǐn xuè zhī shì • 茹 毛 飲 血 之 世， • Times when men dwelled in caves in winter, nests in summer, • Eras when people consumedraw meat and drank blood. (swallow feathers) • Preface to Wenxuan, trans. By Professor David R. Knechtges
http://www.unesco.org/ext/field/beijing/whc/pkm-site.htm • Pei Wenzhong • 裴文中, anglicised also as W. C. Pei, January 19, 1904 - September 18, 1982) was the founding father of Chinese anthropology. • 1920
一般認為新石器時代 有3個基本特征： 1.開始制造和使用 磨制石器 2.發明了陶器 3.出現了農業和養畜業。 Making and Using (more sophisticated )Tools; Invention of Pottery; Domestication of Grain/livestock Agriculture replacing Hunting and Gathering Cultures; Significance: Settlement leads to civilization Characteristics of the Neolithic Age(New Stone Age)
No Pork, No Peace A political satire On a UK website A region with the lowest level of consumption of pork happens to be a place with the highest level of violence… 家【jiā】 family; household; home; a person or family engaged in certain trade; a specialist in a certain field; a school or thought; school; domestic; tame. 宀【mián/ bǎogài】 roof; radical no 40./ 豕【shǐ】 <formal> pig. What is Home without Plumtree's Potted Meat? Incomplete—Episode V in James Joyce’s Ulysses (1922)
Marriage also became mo’nogamous. In a clan, marriages had to follow strict stipulations. Juniors were not allowed to marry their elders, and cousins were forbidden to marry. Pay attention to the significance of domestication of grains (rice and millet) and animals (dogs and pigs) which made it possible for permanent settlement, which paid the way for civilization. Family structure and Domestication of Animals/Livestock
List of Neolithic Cultureshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Neolithic_cultures_of_China
The Yangshao Culture5000 BC to 3000 BCDomestication of Millet, wheat, dogs, pigs, goats, and silkworm • The Yangshao culture (仰韶文化; Yǎngsháo wénhuà) was a Neolithic culture that existed extensively along the central Yellow River in China. The Yangshao culture is dated from around 5000 BC to 3000 BC. The culture is named after Yangshao, the first excavated representative village of this culture, which was discovered in 1921 in Henan Province by the Swedish archaeologist Johan Gunnar Andersson (1874-1960). The culture flourished mainly in the provinces of Henan, Shaanxi 陕西省and Shanxi. 山西省.
Mongols (226-234 in Ebrey’s book East Asia, 1st Ed) • Importance of settlement • In contrast, Mongols are on the move all the time; • Life style has an impact on many things;
The Yangshao Culture • The Yangshao culture is well-known for its red painted pottery, one of two major types produced during the Neolithic period in China. Before 2000 B.C.E., Yangshao were making coiled red earthenware that was fired in kilns 窑at 1000°C-1500°C. Axes and arrowheads were made of polished stone and other tools were made of stone chips. • Millet was the main crop of the Yangshao. They domesticated two main animals, the dog and the pig, with the pig being the more important, painted in white and black with human faces, animal, and geometric designs such as spirals. It is possible that these highly-decorated pieces were produced specifically for funeral rites. • Unlike the later Longshan culture, the Yangshao culture did not use pottery wheels in pottery-making. • Pieces found buried in graves include tall rounded jars, flaring bowls and three-footed bowls which resemble a type of bronze pot (ding) produced in large numbers for ritual purposes during the later Shang dynasty (1750 – 1040 B.C.E.). Excavations found children buried in painted pottery jars. • The Yangshao phase is followed by Longshan/Lungshan.
The Longshan Culture3000 BC to 2000 BC. • The Longshan culture 龙山文化 was a late Neolithic culture in China, centered on the central and lower Yellow River and dated from about 3000 BC to 2000 BC. The Longshan culture is named after the town of Longshan in the east of the area under the administration of the city of Jinan, Shandong Province, where the first archaeological find (in 1928) and excavation (in 1930 and 1931) of this culture took place at the Chengziya 城子崖遗址Archaeological Site.
Longshan Culture2600 to 2000 BCE • First discovered by C.T. Wu. Dating from about 2600 to 2000 BCE, it is characterized by fine burnished ware in wheel-turned vessels of angular outline; abundant gray pottery; rectangular polished stone axes; walls of compressed earth; and a method of divination by heating cattle bones and interpreting the cracks. Longshan Black Pottery ware has been found in northern Henan, Anhui, Shanxi, and Shaanxi provinces and from as far away as the Liaodong Peninsula in northeastern China, indicating a single culture dominated China at the time. Another great invention is Rammed Earth walls and moats in construction and architectural designs.
The Longshan CulturePopularized by its Black Pottery • Black eggshell pottery of the Longshan culture.