THE ANCIENT SEVEN WONDERS OFWORLD • Can you name them? • 1st list compiled around the 2nd century BC • 1st reference to idea found in Historyby Herodotus, 5th century B.C. • Callimachus of Cyrene (305 BC-240 BC) wrote “A Collection of Wonders around the World”, destroyed with the Alexandria Library • Final list compiled during Middle Ages • Archaeological evidence reveals for their builders, the Seven Wonders were a celebration of religion, mythology, art, power, and science • Today, they reflect man’s ability to change the landscape with massive, beautiful structures, one of which has stood the test of time!
THE TEMPLE OF ARTEMISAT EPHESUS “But when I saw the sacred house of Artemis that towers to the clouds, the other Wonders were placed in the shade, For the Sun himself never looked upon its equal outside Olympus.” Antipater of Sidon Located in ancient city of Ephesus near modern town south of Smyrna, Turkey Built around 550 BC by Greek Architect Chersiphron Destroyed in AD 262 and again in AD 401
THE MAUSOLEUM AT HALICARNASSUS “I have lying, over me in Halicarnassus, a gigantic monument such as no other dead person has, adorned in the finest way with statues of horses and men carved most realistically from the best quality marble.” King Maussollos in Lucian’s “Dialogues of the Dead Conceived by King Mausollos and his wife, Artemisia during his reign, 377 to 353 BC Located in modern city of Bodrum on the Aegean Sea in southwest Turkey Adorned with life-sized frieze of animals and humans
THE HANGING GARDENS OF BABYLON “The approach to the Garden sloped like a hillside and the several parts of the structure rose from one another tier on tier…On all this, the earth had been piled…and was thickly planted with trees of every kind that, by their great size and other charm, gave pleasure to the beholder…The water machines [raised] ] the water in great abundance from the river, although no one outside could see it.” Diodorus Siculus Built by Nebuchadnezzar II (604-562 BC) to please his wife or concubine Located on the east bank of the River Euphrates south of Baghdad, Iraq Most descriptive accounts are by Greek historians who never saw the Gardens
THE GREAT PYRAMID OF GIZA “Man fears Time, yet Time fears the Pyramids” Arab proverb Only surviving structure of the Seven Ancient Wonders built around 2560 BC Located at the city of Giza, a part of greater Cairo, Egypt Consists of approximately 2 million blocks of stone Area covered by pyramid can hold St. Peter’s in Rome, the cathedrals of Florence and Milan, and Westminster and St. Paul’s in London COMBINED!
THE LIGHTHOUSE OF ALEXANDRIA “Sostratus, the son of Dexiphanes, the Cnidian, dedicated this to the Saviour Gods, on behalf of those who sail the seas.” Dedicatory inscription of the Lighthouse Only one of the Seven Wonders built with a practical purpose, conceived by Ptolemy Soter around 29 BC Destroyed by earthquakes and fire Located on the ancient island of Pharos Total height was about 384 ft, equivalent to a 40 story modern building
THE COLOSSUS OF RHODES “To you, O Sun, the people of Dorian Rhodes set up this bronze statue reaching to Olympus when they had pacified the waves of war and crowned their city with the spoils taken from the enemy. Not only over the seas but also on land did they kindle the lovely torch of freedom.” Dedicatory inscription of the Colossus Constructed over 12 years as a symbol of unity between the island of Rhodes and Egypt, finished in 282 BC Destroyed in 226 BC by earthquake Located near entrance of harbor of the Mediterranean island of Rhodes in Greece Stood about 110 ft high and influenced the design for the Statue of Liberty
THE STATUE OF ZEUS AT OLYMPIA “In his right hand a figure of Victory made from ivory and gold. In his left hand, his scepter inlaid with all metals, and an eagle perched on the scepter. The sandals of the god are made of gold, as is his robe.” Pausanias the Greek (2nd century AD) Built around 450 BC to honor Zeus for Olympic Games Natural disasters destroyed the temple by 5th Century AD while the statue was destroyed by a fire in 462 AD Located at the ancient town of Olympia on west coast of modern Greece west of Athens The height of statue was 40 ft, equal to a 4 story building
THE ANCIENT SEVEN WONDERS OF THE WORLD COLLEGE OF THE SEQUOIAS DEPARTMENT OF TECHNOLOGY & INDUSTRY ROLANDO L. GONZALEZ, M. ARCH., A.I.A., INSTRUCTOR ARCH 170 ARCHITECTURE HISTORY (PREHISTORIC – GOTHIC) FALL 2004 AMERICA RIVAS