Unit 1, Lesson 1- Identifying Minerals and Crystals! (K12 notes) • Rocks contain many natural resources like oil, coal, iron, and salt • Almost all of rocks are made of minerals Minerals have 3 specific traits- • Naturally Occuring- not made by humans; found in nature • Inorganic- not made by living things; could be made by things once living • Solid- not a liquid or a gas
-Most minerals are made of silicon and oxygen Silicate-any of a group of common minerals, such as quartz or feldspar, that make up 90 percent of the earth´s crust -There are more than 4,000 minerals on Earth! What?!!!
Minerals do not come with name tags! • Scientists have to make a number of observations to figure out what minerals they find! • Crystalline Structure- the arrangement of atoms and molecules • Color- this is obvious! LOL. • Streak- a line of colored powder that is left when a mineral rubs across a porcelain tile • Luster- the amount of light that reflects off a mineral • Cleavage- how the mineral splits apart • Fracture- how a mineral breaks • Hardness- the ability of a mineral to resist being scratched • Chemical Properties- the chemical makeup of a mineral
Before doing Mineral Identification Lab- check these out! A Brief Introduction to Minerals video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8a7p1NFn64s A Fun Mineral Song! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-F0IA21bgmM
Unit 2-Lesson 2-LAB-Mineral Identification • You will use what you learned to identify 6 mineral samples • You identify one mineral by watching a video, then you identify the other 5 on your own! • Gather all your materials before you begin- and watch all the videos- they are very helpful! • Take notes to keep in your Science notebook! • Keep your lab data sheet in your notebook!
Unit 2-Lesson 3 (K12 notes)Igneous Rocks! • Igneous means “formed by fire” • Igneous rocks form in volcanoes where magma pushes through the Earth’s crust • When magma reaches the Earth’s surface, it is called lava • As magma and lava cool down, Igneous rocks are formed • They form either above or below the earth’s surface • Intrusive Igneous rocks cool slowly underground and are coarse-grained (have large mineral crystals) • Extrusive Igneous rocks form outside the surface and cool quickly. They are fine-grained (fine, smooth texture)
Unit 2-Lesson 4 (K12 notes)Sedimentary Rocks! -Rocks that are formed when sediments are compressed and squeezed together -Most rocks we see above ground are sedimentary -Compaction- process of sediments squeezing together -Cementation- process of sediments sticking together Examples- Conglomerate- course-grained rock made of small pebbles Shale-forms when tiny particles of clay are placed under great pressure Sandstone- porous rock that holds deposits of oil or water
Limestone -Chemical sedimentary rock formed from chemicals dissolved in water -Can also form when shells or skeletons of clams, coral, and other ocean life form layers of sediment on the ocean bottom and are compressed. -Used as a building stone and in cement- very common
Unit 2-Lesson 5 (K12 notes)Metamorphic Rocks! • rock that has undergone change, caused by intense heat and pressure, from an earlier form, without melting is metamorphic • metamorphic rock formed by alteration of limestone, used especially in architecture and sculpture is marble • Any igneous or sedimentary rock may be transformed into metamorphic rocks by intense heat and pressure • Non-foliated-metamorphic rock that does not separate into layers when broken (gneiss, schist) • Foliated-metamorphic rock that separates into layers when broken (quartzite, marble)
More Resources about Rocks! www.thehappyscientist.com User name- LVS Password- LVS Click on Earth Science A Song about Rocks http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jPgE74Vltdc Bill Nye video-Rocks and Soil http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iERstXaTIq8 “We Will Rock You” song about the Rock Cycle! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r68iEwYdbh4