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Factory. Words to Know. Kalahari Desert San People Apartheid Nelson Mandela F.W. de Klerk Desmond Tutu Thabo Mbeki. Graphic Organizer. South Africa. Geography.

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  1. Factory

  2. Words to Know • Kalahari Desert • San People • Apartheid • Nelson Mandela • F.W. de Klerk • Desmond Tutu • Thabo Mbeki

  3. Graphic Organizer South Africa

  4. Geography • South Africa is one of the most geographically varied countries of the African continent, comprising territory that ranges from the rolling, fertile plains and the wide open savanna of the Eastern Transvaal to the Kalahari desert and the peaks of the Drakensberg Mountains. The Kalahari Desert is in Africa at the southern part and the desert is a portion of desert and a plateau. The Kalahari Desert supports some unique animals and plants because most of it is not true desert. There are small amounts of rainfall and the summer temperature is very high

  5. What would the Europeans have wanted from South Africa?What are these???

  6. European Colonization • South Africa was colonized by the English and Dutch in the seventeenth century. English domination of the Dutch descendents (known as Boers or Afrikaners) resulted in the Dutch establishing the new colonies of Orange Free State and Transvaal. The discovery of diamonds in these lands around 1900 resulted in an English invasion which sparked the Boer War.

  7. Who was in Southern Africa before the Europeans?

  8. The San people or Bushmen have lived in the Kalahari for 20,000 years as hunter-gatherers. They survive by hunting wild game with bows and arrows and gathering edible plants like berries, melons and nuts as well as insects. Bushmen rarely drink water; they get most of water requirements from plant roots and desert melons found on or under desert floor: they often store water in the blown-out shells of ostrich eggs. The San have their own characteristic language that includes clicking sounds. These Bushmen live in huts built from local materials - the frame is made of branches and the roof is thatched with long grass.

  9. Graphic Organizer San People Kalahari Desert South Africa

  10. "…They resemble us, but in appearance are the color of pumpkin-porridge…They are rude of manners and without any graces or refinement.They carry a long stick of fire.With this they kill and loot from many nations."Zulu impression of first white men, taken from Zulu epic poem, Emperor Shaka the Great, translated by Mazisi Kunene, drawing on the memories of a number of Zulu oral historians.

  11. Interactive Notebook Questions • Why did Europeans want to colonize Southern Africa?

  12. Apartheid • In 1948, racial discrimination laws were passed. Race laws touched every aspect of social life, including a prohibition of marriage between non-whites and whites, and the sanctioning of ``white-only'' jobs.

  13. In 1950, the Population Registration Act required that all South Africans be racially classified into one of three categories: white, black (African), or colored (of mixed decent). The colored category included major subgroups of Indians and Asians.

  14. Classification into these categories was based on appearance, social acceptance, and descent. For example, a white person was defined as ``in appearance obviously a white person or generally accepted as a white person.'' A person could not be considered white if one of his or her parents were non-white. The determination that a person was ``obviously white'' would take into account ``his habits, education, and speech and deportment and demeanor.'' A black person would be of or accepted as a member of an African tribe or race, and a colored person is one that is not black or white.

  15. The Department of Home Affairs (a government bureau) was responsible for the classification of the citizenry. Non-compliance with the race laws were dealt with harshly. All blacks were required to carry ``pass books'' containing fingerprints, photo and information on access to non-black areas.

  16. In 1951, the Bantu Authorities Act established African reservations, known as “homelands”. These homelands were assigned by the government (which was frequently inaccurate). All political rights, including voting, held by an African were restricted to the designated homeland. The idea was that they would be citizens of the homeland, losing their citizenship in South Africa. From 1976 to 1981, four of these homelands were created. Africans living in the homelands needed passports to enter South Africa: aliens in their own country.

  17. In 1960, 70 black protesters were killed during a peaceful demonstration in Sharpsville. The African National Congress (ANC), the principal anti-apartheid organization, was banned that year, and in 1964 its leader, Nelson Mandela, was sentenced to life imprisonment. Black protests against apartheid grew stronger and more violent. In 1976, an uprising in the black township of Soweto spread to other black townships and left 600 dead. Beginning in the 1960s, international opposition to apartheid intensified. The UN imposed sanctions, and many countries sold their South African holdings.

  18. Independence from the U.K. • By 1960 how did the British feel about civil rights? • The Independence of South Africa from the British Empire was establish by the white minority in 1961. Their decision to declare themselves a republic was driven by their desire to maintain the system of Apartheid.

  19. What would have been the world’s reaction to Apartheid?

  20. The penalties imposed on political protest, even non-violent protest, were severe. During the states of emergency which continued intermittently until 1989, anyone could be detained without a hearing by a low-level police official for up to six months. Thousands of individuals died in custody, frequently after gruesome acts of torture. Those who were tried were sentenced to death, banished, or imprisoned for life, like Nelson Mandela.

  21. F.W. deKlerk • Apartheid's grip on South Africa began to give way when F. W. de Klerk replaced P. W. Botha as president in 1989. De Klerk removed the ban on the ANC and released its leader, Nelson Mandela, after 27 years of imprisonment.

  22. In 1991, a multiracial forum led by de Klerk and Mandela, the Convention for a Democratic South Africa (CODESA), began working on a new constitution. The peaceful transition of South Africa from one of the world's most repressive societies into a democracy is one of the 20th century's most remarkable success stories. Mandela and de Klerk were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993. • The 1994 election, the country's first multiracial one, resulted in a massive victory for Mandela and his ANC and the end of Apartheid.

  23. Nationalism • The nationalist movement in South Africa did not achieve independence from a colonial power; rather, it defeated the Apartheid system and established equal rights for black and “colored” South Africans

  24. Another key player in the anti-apartheid movement was Bishop Desmond Tutu (catholic). He worked with foreign governments to bring pressure against the government of South Africa to bring an end to the racial segregation. He as later awarded the Nobel Peace Prize • South Africa, the country with the highest number of HIV-positive people in the world (6.5 million in 2005), has been hampered in fighting the epidemic by its president's highly controversial views. Mbeki has denied the link between HIV and AIDS and claimed that the West has exaggerated the epidemic to boost drug profits. The international community as well as most South African leaders, including Nelson Mandela and Desmond Tutu, have condemned Mbeki's stance. In 2006, 60 international scientists called the government's policies “disastrous and pseudo-scientific.”

  25. Graphic Organizer San People Nelson Mandela Kalahari Desert Apartheid F.W. deKlerk South Africa Desmond Tutu

  26. Interactive Notebook Questions(Left hand side, pick one) • How did Apartheid last so long? • Can black South African’s vote now? • Can black South African’s run for political office now?

  27. South Africans have been referred to as the 'rainbow nation', a title which epitomises the country's cultural diversity. The population of South Africa is one of the most complex and diverse in the world. Of the 45 million South Africans, nearly 31 million are Black, 5 million White, 3 million mixed and one million Indian. The Black population is divided into four major ethnic groups, namely Nguni, Sotho, Shangaan-Tsonga and Venda. There are numerous subgroups of which the Zulu and Xhosa (two subgroups of the Nguni) are the largest. The majority of the White population is of Afrikaans descent (60%), with many of the remaining 40% being of British descent. Languages: There are eleven official languages in South Africa (some of those are…) Xhosa:Approximately 18 percent of South Africa’s population speaks the language, and when doing the mathematics, that makes it around 7.9 million people. Xhosa is marked by a number of tongue-clicking sounds. Those that speak the language are usually involved in an ethnic group known ... more about » Xhosa Zulu:To 24% of South Africans, Zulu is considered to be their home language and 50% of the South Africa’s inhabitants understand the language. Zulu falls under the Nguni group and is one of the Bantu languages. Afrikaans:The Afrikaans language is one of South Africa’s official languages and a majority of South Africa’s population uses this as their first or second language. Venda:This language can be known as Luvenda or just Venda, and Tshivenda is originated from the Bantu language. Ndebele:Ndebele is a Bantu language. Sepedi:Sepedi is also sometimes referred to as Sesotho sa Laboa or Northern Sotho. Setswana:Setswana is commonly known as Tswana, and is actually Botswana’s national language. Southern Sesotho:This Bantu language originates from the Bantu-Nguni era and is also known as Suto, Souto, Sisutho as well as Suthu. Swati:Swati is a part of the Nguni Group and it is one of the many Bantu languages. It is mainly spoken by people in South Africa and Swaziland. Tsonga:Tsonga is a part of Bantu branch when it comes to the Niger-Congo languages.

  28. Johannesburg • The largest and most populous city in South Africa is Johannesburg. While often assumed to be South Africa's capital, Johannesburg does not form one of South Africa's three capital cities. • Johannesburg is the source of a large-scale gold and diamond trade, due to its location on the mineral-rich Witwatersrand range of hills. • According to the 2001 Census, the population of the city is more than three million. Johannesburg also encompasses Soweto to the south west, a township that the apartheid government established to accommodate the large number of migrant workers.

  29. Government • South Africa is the only country in the world with three capital cities: Cape Town, the largest of the three, is the legislative capital; Pretoria is the administrative capital; and Bloemfontein is the judicial capital. South Africa has a bicameral parliament. Unitary, Parliamentary Democracy (*with a President).

  30. S.A. Economy • By UN classification South Africa is a middle-income country with an abundant supply of resources, well-developed financial, legal, communications, energy, and transport sectors, and a modern infrastructure supporting an efficient distribution of goods to major urban centers. South Africa is ranked 20th in the world in terms of GDP (PPP) as of 2007. • Advanced development is significantly localized around four areas: Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, Durban, and Pretoria/Johannesburg. Beyond these four economic centers, development is marginal and poverty is still prevalent despite government efforts. Consequently the vast majority of South Africans are poor. • Other problems are crime, corruption, and HIV/AIDS.

  31. Graphic Organizer San People Nelson Mandela Kalahari Desert Apartheid F.W. deKlerk South Africa Desmond Tutu Poverty Current Issues Thabo Mbeki HIV/AIDS

  32. South African Economy • The economy is mixed with some businesses state-owned while others are controlled by private individuals. • What would be the level of Entrepreneurship?

  33. Trade Barriers (Review) • A trade barrier is a general term that describes any government policy or regulation that restricts international trade. The barriers can take many forms, including: • Quotas • Tariffs • Embargo • Most trade barriers work on the same principle: the imposition of some sort of cost on trade that raises the price of the traded products. If two or more nations repeatedly use trade barriers against each other, then a trade war results. • Economists generally agree that trade barriers are detrimental and decrease overall economic efficiency, this can be explained by the theory of comparative advantage.

  34. On the Left Side of your notebook, match the Trade Barrier with the following: • A tax on goods when they cross a national border. • A type of protectionist trade restriction that sets a physical limit on the quantity of a good that can be imported into a country in a given period of time. • The prohibition of trade with a certain country, in order to isolate it and to put its government into a difficult internal situation. Embargo Tariff Quota

  35. Describe the ways governments distribute power • Unitary- a form of government in which power is held by one central authority. • Confederation-voluntary associations of independent states that, to secure some common purpose, agree to certain limitations on their freedom of action and establish some joint machinery of consultation or deliberation. • Federal-a form of government in which power is divided between one central and several regional authorities. • Which one is South Africa today???? Write your answer in your Notes (Left Side).

  36. Citizen participation in government (Left Side) • Autocratic-government in which one person possesses unlimited power and the citizen has little if any role in the government. • Oligarchic-Government by the few, sometimes a government in which a small group exercises control especially for corrupt and selfish purposes. The citizen has very limited role. • Democratic-Government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly. • Which one is South Africa today???? • Write your answer in your Notes (Left Side).

  37. Describe the two predominant forms of democratic governments (Left Side) • Parliamentary-system of government having the real executive power vested in a cabinet composed of members of the legislature who are individually and collectively responsible to the legislature. May have a Prime Minister elected by the legislature. • Presidential-a system of government in which the president is constitutionally independent of the legislature. • Which one does South Africa have today???? • Write your answer in your Notes (Left Side).

  38. Learning Log-South Africa (Nelson Mandela) • Essay 1st, 2nd, and 6th Periods • Write a 5 paragraph essay describing the role of Nelson Mandela and the end of Apartheid.

  39. Learning Log-South Africa (Nelson Mandela) • Essay 3rd and 5th periods. Choose one of the following to explain the role of Nelson Mandela and Apartheid to South African history. • You are a child in South Africa asking the United Nations for help. • You are Nelson Mandela detailing the hardships of Apartheid to other world leaders • You are the President of the U.S. writing to FW de Klerk asking to end Apartheid • Create your own scenario and write a letter.

  40. Ticket-Out-The-Door • On your own paper, put the following subjects onto a timeline of events: • Apartheid Ends • FW deKlerk is elected president • Nelson Mandela is imprisoned • Dutch arrive in South Africa • Apartheid Begins • British arrive in South Africa • South Africa independence

  41. Summarizing Activity 1(Left hand side) • Draw the following: • How people live in this area: Housing • How people work in this area: Types of Industry? Cities? Towns? • How people travel in this area: Cars? Paved Roads? Water?

  42. Summarizing Activity 2(Left hand side) • Draw the following: • Explain Apartheid

  43. Summarizing Activity 3(Left hand side) • Translate the following statements: • Mother, my human capital increased today in science. • My confederation requires additional capital due to tariffs placed on imported paintballs. • I will engage in traditional economics with you if you will disseminate the pizza. • Once David stopped being autocratic and allowing the team to be oligarchic we started winning. • Create you own phrase using terms from this year

  44. Bibliography • History of South Africa, BBC News. http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/africa/features/storyofafrica/index_section12.shtml. November 23, 2007 • South Africa. Fact Monster. http://www.factmonster.com/ipka/A0107983.html. November 23, 2007 • Geography of South Africa. http://www.geographia.com/south-africa/ • Naidoo, B. Journey to Jo’burg. http://teachers.eusd.k12.ca.us/jleff/LitUnits/Journey%20to%20Jo'Burg.htm November 23, 2007

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