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Fork Lift Safety

Fork Lift Safety

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Fork Lift Safety

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  1. Fork Lift Safety E Light Electric Services, Inc 2012 E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  2. Features • Rough terrain forklift • versatile material handler • capable of moving thousands of pounds over rugged surfaces E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  3. Session Objectives • Identify rough terrain forklift hazards • Understand stability principles • Follow basic safety rules • Inspect forklifts and worksites for safety • Load, unload, and travel safely • Prevent tip-overs E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  4. Pre-quiz: True or False? How Much Do You Already Know? Most rough terrain forklift accidents are caused by operator error. The weight of the load does not affect stability. Anyone who has driven an all-terrain vehicle is permitted to operate a rough terrain forklift. You should check weight charts when loading E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  5. Hazards • Tip-overs/rollovers • Collisions • Slopes/edges • Confined areas • Obstructions • Terrain • Dips, holes, trenches, excavations • Soft ground, E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  6. Accidents • Most accidents are caused by operator error E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  7. Forklifts • The employer shall certify that each operator has been trained and evaluated as required by the standard. • Certification shall include: • Name of operator • Date of training • Date of evaluation • Identity of person(s) performing the training or evaluation • Class of Fork lift E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  8. Forklifts • The Industrial Truck Association has placed powered industrial trucks into 11 classes. • These classifications are based on the type of engine or motor and the atmosphere they to operate in. E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  9. Powered Industrial Trucks. - 1910.178 • ..1910.178(l)(l) Operator training.(l)(1) Safe operation.(l)(1)(i). • The employer shall ensure that each powered industrial truck operator is competent to operate a powered industrial truck safely, as demonstrated by the successful completion of the training and evaluation specified in this paragraph. • (l)(1)(ii). • Prior to permitting an employee to operate a powered industrial truck (except for training purposes), the employer shall ensure that each operator has successfully completed the training required by this paragraph (l), except as permitted by paragraph (l)(5). E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  10. Powered Industrial Trucks. - 1910.178 • (l)(2) • Training program implementation. • (l)(2)(i) • Trainees may operate a powered industrial truck only: • (l)(2)(i)(A) • Under the direct supervision of persons who have the knowledge, training, and experience to train operators and evaluate their competence; and. • (l)(2)(i)(B) • Where such operation does not endanger the trainee or other employees. E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  11. Powered Industrial Trucks. - 1910.178 • (l)(2)(ii) • Training shall consist of a combination of formal instruction (e.g., lecture, discussion, interactive computer learning, video tape, written material), practical training (demonstrations performed by the trainer and practical exercises performed by the trainee), and evaluation of the operator's performance in the workplace. • (l)(2)(iii) • All operator training and evaluation shall be conducted by persons who have the knowledge, training, and experience to train powered industrial truck operators and evaluate their competence. E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  12. Powered Industrial Trucks. - 1910.178 • (l)(6) • Certification. The employer shall certify that each operator has been trained and evaluated as required by this paragraph (l). The certification shall include the name of the operator, the date of the training, the date of the evaluation, and the identity of the person(s) performing the training or evaluation. • (l)(4)(iii) • An evaluation of each powered industrial truck operator's performance shall be conducted at least once every three years. E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  13. OSHA Requirements • Operating instructions, warnings, and precautions • Differences between the truck and the automobile; • Controls and instrumentation • Engine or motor operation • Steering and maneuvering E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  14. OSHA Requirements • Visibility • Fork and attachment adaptation, operation, and use limitations • Vehicle capacity • Vehicle stability; • Vehicle inspection and maintenance • Operating limitations E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  15. Workplace-related topics: • Hazardous (classified) locations • Ramps and other sloped surfaces • Closed environments and other areas where insufficient ventilation or poor vehicle maintenance could cause a buildup of carbon monoxide or diesel exhaust • Other unique or potentially hazardous environmental conditions E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  16. Rough Terrain Forklifts • Transportable, vertical mast, reach type • The vertical Mast type • Variable reach (telescoping boom) E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  17. Protect Yourself • Avoid Pinch points • Avoid entanglements • Avoid rotating Parts E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  18. Vehicle inspection and maintenance • Refer to the operators manual • Each manufacture is different • Check the interval and method for air filters • Some manufactures require this be done only by an authorized technician E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  19. Pre-Operating Checks • All instruments and gauges • Horns and backup alarm • Steering • All controls for proper operation • Brakes for proper operation • Fluid levels • Hydraulic leaks E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  20. Pre-Operating Checks • Lights • Safety belt • Fork tilt mechanism • Battery cables and connections • General wiring • Boom • Slide pads (extendable) • Mast • lift assemble / chains E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  21. Pre-operations • Check Forks • Cracks • Welds • Fork • Mount • Check tires • Tire inflation effects stability • Engine pre- operation checks E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  22. Engine or Motor Operation • Rough Terrain with diesel engine • The majority of rentals in the field • Cold start problems • Lack cold cranking batteries • Lack glow plug system • Solutions • If equipped plug in engine heater • Check operators manual for stating procedure E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  23. Engine or Motor Operation • Warehouse type with propane engine • Fueling / tank change out • Follow instruction in operators manual • Requires adequate ventilation • Propane still produces carbon monoxide E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  24. Differences between the truck and the automobile • A car steers only from the front axle • Forklifts generally steer from the back axle • Rough Terrain extended boom fork lifts can steer (depending on model) • Rear steer • Front Steer • Four wheel steer • Crab Steer • Check the operators manual to understand how to set or change and how to correct E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  25. Difference Between an Automobile and a Forklift E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  26. Rear steering provides a much shorter turning radius Rear steering also has the tail swing effect that can strike objects or personnel Difference Between Front and Rear Steering E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  27. Rear Steering • Rough Terrain Fork lift with rear steering only E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  28. Front Wheel Steer • Drives like a car E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  29. 4 Wheel Steer Tuning • Rough Terrain Fork lift with all wheel steering • Caution Tail swing Fork Swing E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  30. Crab Steer • All four wheels angle the same way • Allows for a sideways movement E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  31. The Problem • In shifting form front steer to rear to crab to four wheel • If not reset can have the wheel miss aliened for any of the steering modes • Return front or rear to inline with machine • Then set the other wheels to in line with the machine. • Check operators manual E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  32. Controls and instrumentation • Refer to the operators manual • Every manufacture is different • Take the time to know and understand the controls and the instrumentation • Take time to do a dry run or mock run • Be familiar with the specific controls • Better to practice before moving expensive materials with lead time to have shipped E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  33. The Work Site • Avoid : • Holes • Drop-offs • Obstacles • Rough Spots • Soft Soil • Deep Mud • Standing Water • Oil Spills • Wet Spots • Slippery Surfaces E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  34. Know your Work Area • Watch for conditions that could cause • Loss of control • A collision • Tip over E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  35. Know your Work Area • Overhead Electrical • De-energize line if needed • Hazardous weather • Confined Spaces • Maintain a SAFE SPEED E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  36. Plan Your Work • Avoid Ruts and Ditches • Curbs • Exposed Railroad Tracks • Know the Weight of the Load • Use Signal person to land loads at a distance or obstructed view E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  37. Plan Your Work • Watch for Tail and Fork swing • Lower load / forks • Set the parking Brake before dismounting E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  38. Visibility • Rough terrain Forklift have large blind spots • To the rear • To the side • Visibility can be blocked by the load E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  39. Visibility • Blind spots • To the rear • To the side • Know what is all the way around your forklift E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  40. Visibility • Visibility can be blocked by the load • Operate in reverse if vision is blocked • Get a spotter to when visibility is blocked E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  41. Vehicle Stability E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  42. Stability Vehicle Center of Gravity (unloaded) Stability Triangle Center of Gravity of Vehicle and Maximum Load (Theoretical) E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  43. Out Side the Stability Triangle E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  44. Stability Triangle E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  45. Combined Center of Gravity • When the combined center of gravity is with in the triangle the forklift is stable E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  46. Combined Center of Gravity • When the combined center of gravity is with in the triangle the forklift is stable • When the combined center of gravity is outside the triangle instability / tip over E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  47. Conditions that Affect Stability • Ground conditions • Speed • Grade • Load • Tire inflation • Operator skill, knowledge, judgment

  48. Know and understand load charts Posted on the machine In operators manual With outriggers Without outriggers With attachments Vehicle Capacity E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  49. Operating Limitations • Center of gravity out side the stability triangle • Load extended beyond load capacity E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012

  50. Stability Review: Make the Right Choice • To prevent tip-overs, where should the center of gravity be in relation to the stability triangle? • The stability triangle is formed by the two front wheels and the: • How does adding a load affect the center of gravity? • a. Inside triangle • b. Outside triangle • a. Operator’s seat • b. Center of rear axle • a. Shifts it • b. Doesn’t affect E Light Electric Services, Inc. 2012