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Iowa State University

Iowa State University

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Iowa State University

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  1. Iowa State University

  2. Iowa State University • 1858 - Chartered as Iowa Agricultural College and Model Farm • 1864 – Designated nation’s first land-grant institution • 1869 – Official opening • 1872 – 1st graduating class of 26 students • 1959 - Renamed Iowa State University of Science and Technology

  3. Iowa State University Today • 26,856 students • 21,607 undergrads • 5,249 graduate • 6,083 faculty and staff • 1984 acres of main campus • Over 200 buildings • 11,133,828 gsf of building space

  4. Iowa State FY08 Revenues$969,587,645

  5. Iowa State UniversityUtility Services

  6. 1 - East Boarding Cottage 2 - West Boarding Cottage 3 - Chemistry-Physics Hall 4 - Lab of Mechanics 5 - College Workshop Edison Light Plant in 1884 • Replaced gas lighting system. • Size “K” Edison Dynamo (approximately 15,000 watts - 110 volts DC) powered by an existing 25 hp Harris-Corliss steam engine in the college workshop. • 250 ten-candle lamps were installed in College Main Building. • Operated only during evening hours.

  7. College Power Station in 1891 In 1891 a new power station (arrow) was constructed directly north of Engineering Hall (Lab of Mechanics Building).

  8. 1891 College Power Station • Started Iowa State’s history of cogeneration • Steam engines were used to produce electricity for lighting • Waste steam from steam engines was sent to campus buildings for heating

  9. Power Station Dynamo Room at the Turn of the Century Total electric capacity of 100 kilowatts

  10. Power Plant in 1906

  11. Chilled Water • In mid-1960’s the university was beginning to air condition campus buildings • Made decision to construct large central chilled water system • Installed all major piping systems throughout campus • Installed the first 5,000 ton steam driven chiller in main power plant • 1968 – Started operation of central chilled water system

  12. Power Plant in 2008

  13. Comparison 1900 Generator Room Capacity of 100 kilowatts 2008 Generator Room Capacity of 46,000 kilowatts

  14. Iowa State University Utility Enterprise • Rate-based enterprise – established in 1985 • Employs 78 people • Two facilities on main campus and two satellite facilities • Capability to provide all the energy needs of the university • Receives no state support

  15. Iowa State University Utility Enterprise • Utility Administration – 2 people • Plant Operations – 28 people • Material Handling – 7 people • Plant Maintenance – 20 people • Mechanical Distribution – 5 people • Electrical Distribution – 9 people • Utility Engineering – 7 people

  16. Iowa State University Utility Enterprise • FY08 budget of $35.7 million • Coal - $13.7 million • Limestone - $412,000 • Ash disposal - $780,000 • Purchased electricity - $2.05 million • For FY08 the cost of these four items averaged $45,000 every day

  17. Power Plant & North Chilled Water Plant • 6 boilers – 900,000 lbs/hr • 4 turbine-generators – 46 MW • 5 chillers – 21,000 tons • 4 air compressors – 4,000 cfm • 1 water plant – 1,000,000 gpd • 2 cooling towers • Extensive auxiliary systems

  18. Utility Consumption from FY85 Base

  19. Iowa State Challenges • Campus growth • Aging equipment • Uncertain environmental regulations • Green movement • Plant capacity

  20. Plant Capacity • With current campus capital plans • Need additional chilled water capacity about 2014 • To maintain capability to fully generate electrical load • Need additional boiler and generator capacity about 2015

  21. Green Activities • Alternative fuels • Waste fuels? • Biomass • Wind energy

  22. Alternative Fuels

  23. Alternative Fuels • Construction demolition waste • Considered a waste to energy opportunity by Iowa DNR • ISU completed test burns in March and August 2008 • Material handling problems • High variability in fuel quality • NOX emissions increased • High levels of lead which remained with the ash • Higher levels of some trace metals (arsenic & cadmium) • No longer considering this fuel due to environmental concerns

  24. Alternative Fuels Biomass • Considered carbon neutral • Volume of fuel increases nearly 4 times • BTU content is 40% lower • Density of biomass is 50% of coal • Fuel handling systems and boiler design are significantly different • Causes NOX emissions to increase and SO2 emissions to decrease • Transportation costs are significant, source must be located close to plant

  25. Alternative Fuels • Would like to find a natural biomass fuel to displace 5-10% of coal burn • Wood pellets • Chicken manure pellets • Corn stover

  26. Wind Energy • Working jointly with Ames Municipal Electric System to procure wind energy delivered to Ames and campus • Iowa State is looking for about 5 megawatts of capacity • Would equate to 7-8% of the campus energy consumption

  27. Wind Energy • Ames/Iowa State participating in preliminary development of a wind farm near Ames • Would be connected to joint Ames/Iowa State transmission system • Ames/Iowa State also issuing an RFP for wind energy delivered to campus

  28. Utility Plant OperationsMike McGraw

  29. Facilities Main Power Plant North Campus Chilled Water Plant Vet Med College Utility Operation Applied Science Complex Utility Operation

  30. Support & Services Plant Operations Material Handling Plant Maintenance Remote Plant Operations

  31. Staffing Support • Plant Operations • Operate main power plant • Monitor/check operations of remote plants • 3-8hr shifts per day • 5-crews 5-people per shift • 28-day rotation schedule • Material Handling • Receive coal & lime deliveries • Load ash trucks • 2-Crew’s (5:30 Am ~6:30 Pm) • 7-Equipment Operator’s • Fueling plant 6-7 days per week

  32. Staffing Support • Plant Maintenance • Leadership Team 1-Manager 2-Mechanical Supervisor’s • 3-Electrical & Instrumentation Technicians • 2-Insulators • 7-Maintenance Mechanics • This group provides support as needed to all facilities • Remote Plant Operations • 3-Enviromental System Mechanics • Operate & maintain equipment (Refrigeration Certification)

  33. Boilers Boiler 1 Fluidized Bed Coal 20 years 170,000 lbs/hr Boiler 2 Fluidized Bed Coal 20 years 170,000 lbs/hr Boiler 3 Spreader Stoker Coal/Gas 35 years 150,000 lbs/hr Boiler 4 Spreader Stoker Coal/Gas 33 years 160,000 lbs/hr Boiler 5 Chain Grate Stoker Coal/Gas 40 years 150,000 lbs/hr Boiler 6 Chain Grate Stoker Gas 48 years 100,000 lbs/hr • Total steam production capacity of 900,000 lbs per hour • Peak steam production of 488,000 lbs/hr

  34. Turbine Generators Generator 3 30 years 13.28 megawatts Generator 4 48 years 6.25 megawatts Generator 5 40 years 11.5 megawatts Generator 6 3 years 15.0 megawatts • Total electrical production capacity of 46 megawatts • Peak load of 34.1 megawatts

  35. North Chiller Plant Main Power Plant Chiller 1 40 years 5,000 tons 400 lb steam Chiller 2 30 years 5,000 tons 400 lb steam Chiller 3 24 years 5,000 tons 90 lb steam Chiller 4 12 years 2,000 tons electric Chiller 5 5 years 4,000 tons 90 lb steam Chillers • Total chilled water production capacity of 21,000 tons • Peak load of 15,169 tons

  36. Vet Med College Operation 90# steam is typically supplied from the main power plant. 2- Packaged boilers (30,000#/hr each) 2- 1,000 ton absorption chillers 2- 1,000 ton centrifugal chillers 2- Air compressors

  37. Applied Science Complex 2-Low pressure heating boilers 2- 400 ton centrifugal chillers Air compressors

  38. FY08 Plant Production • Steam produced – 2,623,141,000 lbs • Steam to campus – 1,095,721,000 lbs • Chilled water – 33,343,000 ton-hrs • Electricity consumed – 200,886,000 kwh • Generated electricity – 151,831,000 kwh • Purchased electricity – 45,956,000 kwh • Coal burned – 154,463 tons • Limestone used – 14,749 tons • Ash produced – 28,178 tons

  39. Cogeneration • Fiscal Year 2008 • Over 98% of the steam supplied to campus was used to produce electricity before being sent to campus • Over 83% of the steam used to produce chilled water was used first to produce electricity before producing chilled water • Cogeneration produced nearly 20% of the university’s electricity at a cost of $0.012 per kilowatt-hour

  40. Coal – 155,000 Tons per Year

  41. Limestone • Used in fluidized bed boilers to remove over 90% of the sulfur from the coal • 1 pound of limestone for every 8 lbs of coal • Limestone comes from Alden, Iowa, near Iowa Falls • 15,000 tons of limestone per year

  42. Ash Disposal • Nearly 30,000 tons per year of ash • All ash is reused for beneficial uses as defined by the Iowa DNR. Uses for ash in 2007 included: • Quarry reclamation – 23,410 tons • Soil stabilization – 6,999 tons • Compost manufacture – 1,358 tons • Cement manufacture – 305 tons

  43. Purchased Electricity • Make or buy decision • Power plant operators determine how much power to buy, if any • Weather conditions • Anticipated cogeneration opportunities • Equipment operating limits • ISU production costs • Cost and availability of purchased power • Available transmission system capacity

  44. Purchased Electricity

  45. Emissions Summary

  46. Mechanical Distribution & Energy ManagementClark Thompson

  47. Mechanical Distribution Systems • Steam tunnels – 4.5 miles • Direct buried steam – 2.6 miles • Chilled water – 5.3 miles • Domestic water – 8.3 miles • Natural gas – 4.5 miles • Sanitary sewer – 10.3 miles • Storm sewer – 25.2 miles • Compressed air – 3.5 miles • Replacement value of $113 million

  48. Applying Utility Core Values • Safety • Reliability • Efficiency • Innovation • Stewardship

  49. Common Strategies Applied to Achieve Vision and Core Values • Provide Detailed Standards • Identify standard material and methods • Refine standards • Observations • new products • Apply same standards • Capital Projects • Routine Maintenance • Post Standards on the web for everyone to access • Make standards so easy to use so that most will not consider free lancing and using other approaches