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Stem Cell Research

Stem Cell Research

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Stem Cell Research

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  1. Stem Cell Research By "Doctors" Scott Cardona, Grant Granado, George Matarangas, Calix O'Hara, and Paul Siewierski

  2. What are stem cells? Stem cells are cells with the capability of developing into many different types of cells. They are produced in some organs to replace damaged tissue. http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/

  3. Stem Cells, cont. Stem cells differ from other cells in that they are unspecialized but can become many different types of cells with specialized functions. http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/basics1.asp

  4. Types of Stem Cells There are two main types of stem cells with one major difference between them:     1. Embryonic stem cells, from developing embryos     2. Adult stem cells, from adult tissue http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/info/stem_cell/ 1 2

  5. Types of Stem Cells, cont. Adult stem cells can be taken from umbilical cords, placenta, fat from liposuction, and other tissue from the body. They can even be harvested from cadavers that are "fresh" enough. http://www.aproundtable.org/tps30info/stemcellresearch.html

  6. Types of Stem Cells, cont. Embryonic stem cells are taken from human embryos that are grown in vitro, but currently, they are more commonly used in research than actual treatment http://www.aproundtable.org/tps30info/stemcellresearch.html

  7. Stem Cell Research and Treatment The majority of stem cell research and treatment is conducted using adult stem cells. In fact, adult stem cell treatment has already helped thousands of people. http://www.aproundtable.org/tps30info/stemcellresearch.html

  8. Stem Cell Research, cont. Adult stem cell research is 20-30 years ahead of embryonic cell research because of the difficulty of embryonic cells developing outside of their usual environment. http://www.aproundtable.org/tps30info/stemcellresearch.html

  9. World's first transplant of a whole organ grown in lab • November 2008 • Claudia Castillo • damaged windpipe • lower chance of rejection http://www.dailyglobal.com/2008/11/worlds-first-transplant-of-a-whole-organ-grown-in-lab/

  10. Pros • replace/repair damaged organs • Reduced risk of Transplantation • Serious medical conditions, like cancer and birth defects, are due to abnormal cell division and differentiation. http://www.dailyglobal.com/200 8/11/world s-first-transplant-of-a-whole-or gan-grown-in-lab/ http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_4cp HRWD5Y6I/TJKUaPoJbGI/AAAAA AAAAA8/kOq-Y682kuE/s1600/bi o+12.png

  11. Pros cont. Cardiovascular disease • stem cells that are injected into the circulation or directly into the injured heart tissue... http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/basics6.asp http://cdn.elev8.com/files/2010/05/heart.jpg

  12. Pros cont. • ...appear to improve cardiac function and/or induce the formation of new capillaries. http://stemcells.ni h.gov/info/basics/b asics6.asp http://s3.amazona ws.com/readers/2 10/10/28/stemcellt reatments_1.png http://terra.dadeschools.net/books/Biology/BiologyExploringLife04/0-13-115075-8/text/chapter30/30images/30-02.gif

  13. Pros cont. •  New studies indicate that it may be possible to direct the differentiation of stem cells to form insulin-producing cells ... http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/basics6.asp http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Guardian/Pix/commercial/2011/10/27/1319727251778/Stem-cells-being-grown-in-008.jpg

  14. Pros cont. • ...that eventually could be used in transplantation therapy for persons with diabetes. • Scientists know that turning genes on and off is central to this process. http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/basics6.asp http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/diabetes-statistics/ http://www.businessweek.com/news/2011-11-14/diabetes-will-strike-one-in-ten-adults-by-2030-idf-report-says.html http://www.abc.net.au/health/library/img/leukaemia_transplant.gif http://kids.jdrf.org/images/General_Images/Search_for_a_Cure/General/stemcells.jpg

  15. Pros cont. • 336 million people have diabetes •  1 in 10 adults (552 million) will have diabetes by 2030 • Associated with 231,404 deaths • Deaths will double by 2030 http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/basics6.asp http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/diabet es-statistics/ http://www.businessweek.com/news/2011-11-14/d iabetes-will-strike-one-in-ten-adults-by-2030-idf-r eport-says.html

  16. Pros cont. • Human stem cells could also be used to test new drugs • Ethical dilemmas are largest challenges to increased funding/ large-scale use http://www.hotlikesauce.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/11/ stem-cecomic.jpg http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/basics6.asp http://www.experiment-resources.com/stem-cell-pros-and-cons.html http://www.experiment-resources.com/embryonic-stem-cells.html

  17. Cons • Cons come from two areas • 1. Embryos being destroyed • Destroyed Embryos < 100 cells • Some equate this to murder • Only applies to embryonic research http://www.allaboutpopularissues.org/pros-and-cons-of-stem-cell-research.htm

  18. Embryonic Stem Cells Being Extraced http://www.centreofthecell.org/assets/images/blastocyst%20day%205.jpg

  19. Cons cont. •  Embryos cont. • Proponents argue cells already available from in-vitro • No new cells destroyed  http://www.allaboutpopularissues.org/pros-and-cons-of-stem-cell-research.htm

  20. Cons cont. • 2. Medical Grounds • Mice with Parkinson's treated with stem cells died at 20% rate • -Suggests stem cells not viable treatment http://www.allaboutpopularissues.org/pros-and-cons-of-stem-cell-research.htm

  21. Cons cont. • Medical cont. • Cells must • Create enough tissue • Differentiate into correct cells • Survive the translplant •  Function properly •  Avoid harming recipent •  Hard to achieve this • http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/basics6.asp

  22. Cons Cont. Cells being frozen for in vitro. Later stem cells can be obtained from these. http://media-3.web.britannica.com/eb-media//91/136091-050-DBFA64C0.jpg

  23. Groups who Support Stem Cell Research • Americans for Cures Foundation- will improve life. • American Association for the Advancement of Science- increases knowledge of human body. • Canadian Stem Cell Network- new treatments. http://www.stemcellresources.org/who_orgs.html

  24. Groups who support cont. • Coalition for the Advancement of Medical Research-  developing new medicines. •  Planned Parenthood- providing services for the public. • 72% of Americans support Stem Cell research. http://www.stemcellresources.org/who_orgs.html

  25. Why do groups support it? • Believe it is morally right  • Outweighs any destruction of embryos • Alternatively, Embryos not considered "human" http://poq.oxfordjournals.org/content/68/1/131.full

  26. Groups that are Opposed to Stem Cell Research • United States Conference of Catholic Bishops- considers murder • Christian Coalition- violation of human rights • Concerned Women for America- conservation of life • Southern Basptist Convention- goes against beliefs/ all life is sacred http://www.cc.org/ http://urj.org/

  27. Groups who don't support cont. • Union of American Hebrew Congregations (Reform)- requirement to use knowledge to heal others without hurting • Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America- destruction of fetuses is considered abortion http://www.cc.org/ http://urj.org/

  28. Why do these groups oppose Stem Cell Research? • Generally contend it is destruction of human life • Consider Embryos "human" • Often routed in religious doctrne • Catholics, Jews, Protestants, Orthodox Christians http://www.quora.com/Why-do-people-oppose-stem-cell-research

  29. Church's View The Catholic Church condemns stem cell research on embryonic cells.     The embryo is, from conception, a human being.  http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/pontifical_academies/acdlife/documents/rc_pa_acdlife_doc_20000824_cellule-staminali_en.html

  30. Church's View contd.    Taking the life of another human is murder and wrong. http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/pontifical_academies/acdlife/documents/rc_pa_acdlife_doc_20000824_cellule-staminali_en.html

  31. Church's View contd. The end does not justify the means.  http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/pontifical_academies/acdlife/documents/rc_pa_acdlife_doc_20000824_cellule-staminali_en.html 

  32. Church's View contd.     Even if the end result is to save lives, the sacrificing of            innocent human beings to do so is wrong.  http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/pontifical_academies/acdlife/documents/rc_pa_acdlife_doc_20000824_cellule-staminali_en.html 

  33. Church's View contd    The Church does not oppose adult stem cell research.     There is no loss of life in adult stem cell http://catholicism.about.com/od/thechurchintheworld/p/Stem_Cells.htm http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/pontifical_academies/acdlife/documents/rc_pa_acdlife_doc_20000824_cellule-staminali_en.html