PERFECT TENSE Present Perfect: Action begun in the past and continues to the present • I (have, had) chopped wood every Tuesday for three years. Past Perfect: Action in the past that preceded another past action • I (have, had) chopped wood every Tuesday until I bought a chain saw. Future Perfect: Action in future time in relation to another time even further in the future • By 2015, I (would have, will have) chopped enough wood to heat six houses.
SUBJUNCTIVEDependent clauses expressing a condition that is untrue or contrary to fact. • If I (was, were) happy, I would laugh. • If I (were, had been) happy, I would have laughed. • If Holmes (had, would have) arrived, he would have seen the rocket. • Do not use WOULD in a subjunctive/if clause!!!!
TRANSITIVE/INTRANSITIVE • I like (lying, laying) my head in a pile of sand when I am (lying, laying) on the beach. • I (lay, laid) the book on the table and (lay, laid) down on the couch. • Intransitive: rise/sit • Transitive: raise/set