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Quantum Dots. Arindam Ghosh. Physics research on quantum dots What are the active areas. Understand nanoscale transport Materials Self-assembly of nano -structures Paradigm shift in functional electronics?. Organization of large number of nanostructures – scalability

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## Quantum Dots

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**Quantum Dots**ArindamGhosh**Physics research on quantum dotsWhat are the active areas**• Understand nanoscale transport • Materials • Self-assembly of nano-structures • Paradigm shift in functional electronics? Organization of large number of nanostructures – scalability Utilize natural forces Organic, inorganic and biological systems Effect of quantum mechanics Confinement and Coulomb force Spin effects and intrinsic magnetism Disorder – error optimization and modeling New nanostructured materials for transistors: Beyond silicon? Nanowires for interconnects or active elements New dielectrics: high-k and low-k Single electron transistors Carbon for next generation? New architecture? Electronics with nanomachines? Ferromagnetic logic devices? Quantum computation**Single electron transistors (SET) – Operation of atomic**switches Quantum Dot Gate Particle in a small box ~ 10 – 100 nm Energy-levels are quantized DE ~ 1/L2 Quantum effects only when DE>>kT Source Drain VSD VSD Source Drain current -Vg current current VSD Source-drain voltage (VSD) Gate voltage (Vg)**The top-down approach**Materials Plus Plus Creates Plan/Information Tools Product**The bottom-up approach**Self-AssembledProduct Creates Plus Tools Materials with stored information**New materials and protocols for SET**High-mobility two-dimensional electron gas Nano-engineering with silicon Semiconductor nanoparticles and nanowires Carbon electronics with nanotubes and graphene Molecules and DNA**Si atoms**Aluminum Gallium Arsenide Gallium Arsenide The two-dimensional electron gas in semiconductor heterostructures 2D electrons Extremely versatile Expensive Incompatible to Silicon technology**The Carbon nanotube single electron transistor**Source Drain Gate**The magic numbers**The Fock-Darwin Spectrum**Quantum dot in quantum computation**Spin qubit in single quantum dot Charge qubit in double quantum dots Varying readout schemes**Spin measurement in a quantum dot**“Spin to charge” conversion Nature 2004**The protocol**(1) Empty, (2) inject and wait, (3) measure

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