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Properties of Matter

Properties of Matter

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Properties of Matter

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  1. Properties of Matter

  2. Matter: Anything that has mass and takes up space

  3. Mass: • the amount of matter in an object

  4. Mass: • the amount of matter in an object • measured with a balance

  5. Volume: • the amount of space (capacity) an object takes up

  6. Volume: • the amount of space (capacity) an object takes up • measured with a ruler or graduated cylinder

  7. Physical Properties • Are characteristics or features that describe matter

  8. What is density?

  9. What is density? Density is a comparison of how much matter there is in a certain amount of space.

  10. What is density? Density is a comparison of how much matter there is in a certain amount of space. The more matter in a certain space, it will sink. Less matter it will rise

  11. Which one is more dense? • Demonstration: People in a room or in a field • How about this: Which square is more dense?

  12. Which one is more dense? • Now which one is more dense?

  13. What is density? • Density = mass OR mass ÷ volume. volume • Units for density: g . cm3 • Why are these the units for density? ALWAYS REMEMBER UNITS!

  14. Examples of physical properties include • color • size • shape • texture • smell • temperature • state

  15. Chemical Properties

  16. Chemical Properties Are properties that do NOT change as mass, volume and/or shape change.

  17. Chemical Properties Are properties that do NOT change as mass, volume and/or shape change. Are properties of a substance, not a specific object

  18. Examples include • boiling point • melting point • solubility • conductivity • hardness • pH • flammability • density

  19. Examples of Chemical Properties/Changes: Burning Rusting Cooking Film Processing (Any change that causes NEW matter to be formed)

  20. Law of Conservation of Matter There is no observable change in the quantity of matter during a chemical reaction or a physical change. In other words, matter cannot be created nor destroyed. It is just converted from one form to another (just like energy)

  21. States of Matter • Solid • Liquid • Gas • Plasma

  22. Solids

  23. Solids • Have definite shape and definite volume

  24. Solids • Have definite shape and definite volume • Particles are tightly packed

  25. Solids • Have definite shape and definite volume • Particles are tightly packed • Molecules are held close together and there is very little movement between them.

  26. Liquids

  27. Liquids • Do not have definite shape but do have definite volume

  28. Liquids • Do not have definite shape but do have definite volume • Particles are loosely packed

  29. Liquids • Do not have definite shape but do have definite volume • Particles are loosely packed • Atoms and molecules have more space between them than a solid does, but less than a gas (ie. It is more “fluid”)

  30. Gases

  31. Gases • Do not have definite shape or definite volume

  32. Gases • Do not have definite shape or definite volume • Particles are very far apart

  33. Gases • Do not have definite shape or definite volume • Particles are very far apart • Molecules are moving in random patterns with varying amounts of distance between the particles.

  34. Phase Changes of Water ICE WATER STEAM melting freezing (solid) (liquid) (gas) evaporating condensing

  35. Plasma Plasma is different from a gas, because it is made up of groups of positively and negatively charged particles

  36. Plasma • You don't find naturally occurring plasmas too often when you walk around. They aren't things that happen regularly on Earth. • If you have ever heard of the Northern Lights, you might know that those are types of plasmas. It takes a very special environment to keep plasmas going.

  37. Star formation in the Eagle NebulaSpace Telescope Science Institute, NASA (below) Northern Lights

  38. Products manufacturedusing plasmas impact our daily lives:

  39. EXAMPLES: • Computer chips and integrated circuits • Computer hard drives • Electronics • Machine tools • Medical implants and prosthetics • Audio and video tapes • Aircraft and automobile engine parts • Printing on plastic food containers • Energy-efficient window coatings • High-efficiency window coatings • Safe drinking water • Voice and data communications components • Anti-scratch and anti-glare coatings on eyeglasses and other optics

  40. While natural plasmas aren't found around you that often, man-made plasmas are everywhere. • Think about fluorescent light bulbs. They are not like regular light bulbs. Inside the long tube is a gas. Electricity flows through the tube when the light is turned on. The electricity acts as an energy source and charges up the gas. This charging and exciting of the atoms creates glowing plasma inside the bulb.

  41. Properties of Matter include: • How it looks (shiny, dull, colored) • How it feels(hard, soft, rough, smooth) • How it smells (sweet, salty, flowery) • How it sounds (loud, soft, hollow) • How it tastes (sweet salty, bitter, sour) • What it does (bounce, bubble, tear)

  42. So what makes up matter?

  43. Atoms • The building blocks of Matter • Consists of Protons (+), Electrons (-), • and Neutrons (N). Elements • Consists of only one kind of atom, • Cannot be broken down into a simpler type of matter by either physical or chemical means • Can exist as either atoms or molecules. Images are from http://www.chem4kids.com

  44. Elements • There around 120 elements, and when you combine them you can make millions of molecules. • ( We sometimes use the terms atom and element to mean the same thing. Remember, atom is the general term. Everything is made of atoms. The term element is used to describe atoms with specific characteristics)

  45. Molecules • A molecule consists of two or more atoms of the same element, or different elements, that are chemically bound together. • In the animation above, two nitrogen atoms • (N + N = N2) make one Nitrogen molecule • Two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom (H +H+O=H2O) makes a water molecule.

  46. compounds • substances made of two or more elements combined chemically • compounds have properties different from those of the original elements • examples • water: hydrogen and oxygen • salt: sodium(Na) and chlorine (Cl) Sodium Chloride

  47. Pure Substances VS Mixtures • Matter can be classified in two broad categories: pure substances and mixtures

  48. What are "substances"? • Substances can be identified as either an element, compound, or a mixture.

  49. Mixtures • combination of two or more substances that are not chemically combined • examples • salad • frosted cake • kool-aid