World War I The War To End All Wars
World War I A war different for the U. S. as opposed to the European nations who fought it • U. S. military struggle brief, decisive, • without great cost • Economically—the source of a great • boom • Propelled the U.S. into a position of • international preeminence
World War I Four long-term causes: Nationalism Imperialism Militarism Formation of a system of alliances
World War I Four long-term causes: Nationalism: belief—national interests & national unity should be placed ahead of global interests and a nation’s foreign affairs guided by own self-interest.
World War I France and Germany Competed for Euro. leadership
World War I Russia considered itself protector of Europe’s Slavic peoples. One Slavic country was Serbia— whose people lived under rule of Austria-Hungary
World War I Serbia was located in a powder- keg region known as the Balkans
World War I Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Romania and Serbia formed as people won independence
World War I Four long-term causes: Imperialism: the policy in which stronger nations extend their economic, political, or military control over weaker territories. Increased, or made worse, by European nationalism
World War I Four long-term causes: Militarism: development and use of military as a tool of diplomacy. 1890: strongest nation in Europe: Germany Efficient reserve and draft systems
World War I Four long-term causes: 1890, strongest navy in world: Great Britain 1897, Germany began to expand its sea power Largest battleships & destroyers Along with the U. S., France, Japan and Italy joined the naval arms race.
World War I Four long-term causes: Alliance system: mutual defense Triple Entente: France, Great Britain, Russia (Russia separate alliance with Serbia) Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
World War I • Serbia wanted to absorb all Balkan Slavs. • Russia supported the Serbs. • Austria-Hungary feared rebellion • among its Slavic population. • Annexed Bosnia-Herzegovina • 1908 • Serb leaders were outraged.
World War I Russia Backed Serbia Germany Backed Austria-Hungary Serbia wanted to take Bosnia- Herzegovina away from Austria Leaders of Russia & Germany cousins
World War I June 28, 1914. . . Austro-Hungarian Archduke Franz Ferdinand and wife Sofie. . . . . . are assassinated by a Serb in Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina
World War I 23 July: Austria sends harsh ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia agrees to demands 28 July: Austria rejects agreement and declares war. Russia mobilizes against Austria and Germany, Austria’s ally, mobilizes against Russia.
World War I Russian mobilization called precaution Germany declares war on Russia. . .
World War I . . . then on France
World War I The Schliffen Plan Schliffen Plan—through Belgium Belgium would not grant German passage claiming neutrality. Germany invaded Belgium, so. . .
World War I Great Britain, a close ally of Belgium, declares war on Germany • Central Powers: • Germany • Austria-Hungary • Ottoman Empire • Bulgaria • Allies: • Great Britain • France • Russia • Japan • Italy (6 months)
World War I Marne River Paris August 14, 1914—Germans cut through Belgium into France, close to Paris. 5 September—French counterattack First Battle of the Marne
World War I Marne River Trench Warfare After 4 days, Germans retreat— eventually 60 miles. Most important event of WW I
World War I Trench Warfare 500 miles of trench line stretching from Belgium to Switzerland.
World War I Trench Warfare Over the top No Man’s Land
World War I Unbelievable slaughter Example: First Battle of the Somme 1 July 1916-mid-Nov. 1916 British: 60,000 casualties first day alone! Total casualties for battle: 1.2 million; 650,000 GE; 420,000 GB; 200,000 FR
World War I Unbelievable slaughter Battle of Verdun 21 Feb-18 Dec 1916 Total casualties: 500,000 to 600,000 Parts of Verdun battlefield are still too dangerous for people: mines, unexploded shells, etc.
World War I Key European Leaders: Douglas Haig Ferdinand Foch
World War I Key European Leaders: Erich Ludendorff Kaiser Wilhelm II
World War I Key European Leaders: Paul von Hindenburg Henri-Philippe Petain
World War I Western front; Italian front; Eastern front; Dardanelles attack Arabian front; African front
World War I New Technology
World War I 20th century weapons and equipment. . . . . .19th century tactics.
World War I Be impartial in thought as well as deed. Many Americans: not genuinely impartial German-Americans and Irish-Americans sympathized with German cause Yet, many Americans fervently admired the British (tradition, culture, political system Instinctively many attributed the cause of the Allies a moral quality denied to Central Powers
World War I Economic realities also made it impossible for the U.S. to deal with the belligerents on equal terms British: naval blockade on Germany U. S., as a neutral, could choose NOT to trade with both sides; however, could easily weather not trading with the Central Powers while not easily being able to weather an embargo with its more extensive trade with the Allies Orders for material from France and G. B. soared after 1914—led to one of greatest economic booms in U. S. history Became the Arsenal of the Allies
World War I New, barbaric tactic used by Germany Submarine (untersee boots) wolfpacks
World War I New, barbaric tactic used by Germany Sinking of the Lusitania (May 7, 1915)
World War I New, barbaric tactic used by Germany Sinking of the Lusitania (May 7, 1915) 1198/ 128 Americans killed
World War I Sinking of the Lusitania (May 7, 1915) Wilson angrily demanded that Germany promise not to repeat such outrages Germans agreed: tensions grew Early 1916, Germans learned that the Allies were arming merchant ships to sink submarines Germany proclaimed it would fire on such vessels without warning
World War I Sinking of the Lusitania (May 7, 1915) French Steamer: SS Sussex attacked by U. Boats Wilson demanded that Germany abandon its unlawful tactics Germans: Sussex Pledge
World War I Events leading to U. S. declaration of War Winter 1917: German offensive plus unrestricted submarine warfare against U. S. and Allied ships Attempt to cut off Britain from supplies
World War I Events leading to U. S. declaration of War Feb. 25, 1917: Zimmermann Telegram German foreign secretary, Arthur Zimmermann sent a telegram to Heinrich von Eckhardt, the German ambassador to Mexico suggesting if Mexico attacked the U. S., after the war in Europe, Germany would help Mexico regain lost provinces Mexico demurred; British intercepted the telegram and gave to the U. S.
World War I Events leading to U. S. declaration of War Feb. 25, 1917: Zimmermann Telegram
World War I Events leading to U. S. declaration of War March 15, 1917: Tsar Nicholas II of Russia abdicates U. S. is spared the embarrassment of allying itself with a despotic monarchy
The U. S. in World War I April 1917: Army, again, not prepared for war Only 200,000 people Few officers with combat experience Out-of-date weapons Air corps: 55 planes/130 pilots
The U. S. in World War I • National Defense Act of 1916 • --Increased size of regular • military to 300,000 • --President could order industry • to produce defense material
The U. S. in World War I Selective Service Act of 1917 Newton Baker Created draft boards Required mandatory registration of males 21-30 Increased size of National Guard 24 million registered; 3 million chosen by lottery; 2 million served in Europe; 1.5 million saw combat
The U. S. in World War I Corporal Herman Runkel, 2nd Infantry Div.
The U. S. in World War I U. S. Commander: Gen. John J. Pershing British and French generals wanted to use Americans as fillers in their units. Pershing demanded a separate American force. Pershing won