Comments from Japan July 1/2004 Aichi University Masako Bando
Status of Japan • Young generation Olympic competition of physics？？？ Status of high school boys • Silver generation Powerful and curious, especially women → Not only physics but ecology etc
Common Problem Modern Physics hard, Cool, difficult Gap between specialists and people Gap between daily life and physics Gap between researching and teaching etc・・・・・・・
Compare JPS and JCS Serious problem of pollution caused by Artificial chemical products. Students who measure chemistry drastically decreased Many trials and appeals to get social understanding
Physics v.s Chemistry Cosmos Ecology Neutrino pollution I need good instruments of such but still do feel these are not enough.
Characteristics of Physics Why?? The ratio of women in Physicists Women in Physics may be the least in all fields The ratio of women physicists Japan may the least in the world High energy physics Space science Biotechnology Computer Science Big science
Investigation of students by questionnaire • Hate some kinds of key-wards symbols and figs of atoms together electron, log, square root, Aversive Stimulus Σ, sin vector cell
Students measuring non-natural science may give some hints・・・・・・ • They often watch TV program “search X”“project X” • They prefer to take natural science lectures • They are curious enough • They do not think that they did not take natural science course because of bad text books or teachers.
1 Possible Experiments for big Classes
20 century Modern Physics Relativity + Quantum theory + Phase transition
Solid State Physics Inflation UniverseUnified Theory Kanazawa University Aoki et al Social phenomena
Extreme situation High technology Primitive experience Most of the experiments from outside of objects They become atoms or molecules
Group Experiments Ising model 700 students Measuring Management or Law
Rule red ⇔ blue • The dominant color of nearest people • Change color if your color is different from 1 • Keep the same color if your color is the same as 1
They say・・・・・・・ *Physics is understandable ! *Same phenomena may occur in our society, fashion, vote, for example * found boundary effects !
Responses Fashion, Trends ？ I can understand it since I became a molecule Application to traffic flow (physics students)
Q Data from Hanshin highway Vertical: car density
最適速度模型 (Optimal Velocity Model） 前車との相互作用
Video show *Cell automaton by kinder-garden children *700 students experiments about 16-8 steps after colors become uniform
Variation U235 Nuclear decay The concepts *Chain reaction *Critical mass *Critical density *Controller
In this case we need • Neutrons beans drops wrapped by fancy paper news paper • Clean up class rooms radioactive nuclear garbage
２ What Images Do Japanese Students Have About Einstein？
Einstein 1905 → 2005WYP General relativity Photon theory Brownian motion Manhattan project
Another point of view Physics Society
Historical Events of Atomic Energy Nuclear energy 1895 ・X ray 1898 ・CurrieNatural radioactive elements 1905 ・Einstein E=mc2 1938 ・nuclear reaction U235 1939 ・APS meeting Letter of Einstein to The president 1940 ・Mode committee 1941 ・Fermi, Oppenheimer critical mass 1942 ・Manhattan project 1943 ・Los Alamos Institute 1945 ・Frank report (June) ・Hiroshima, Nagasaki (Aug.) 1949 ・Soviet Union Hydrogen Atomic Bomb 1950 ・Stockholm appeal 1955 ・Russell Einstein appeal against Atomic energy weapons Manhattan Project Atomic Bomb After the War 2
Einstein • The rise of Nazism and the horrifying events of World War II forced him to reconsider his anti-war position. Concerned the Nazis were building an atomic bomb, he urged the United States to build one first. Six years later, when the bomb was dropped on civilians, Einstein openly regretted his action and became a champion of nuclear disarmament for the rest of his life.
In the last week of his life Einstein collaborated with Bertrand Russell on a manifesto concluding with a resolution to be presented to a world convention of scientists which read: In view of the fact that in any future world war nuclear weapons will certainly be employed, and that such weapons threaten the continued existence of mankind, we urge the governments of the world to realize, and to acknowledge publicly, that their purposes cannot be furthered by a world war, and we urge them, consequently, to find peaceful means for the settlement of all matters of dispute between them.
Students • I thought that Einstein was the scientist who made atomic bomb. • I understand that he wanted to make atomic bomb before Hitler. • Are Scientists so naïve to predict that army may use in a wrong way? • It is common phenomena that science is wrongly used. Social system is important.
Madame Curie • Marie Sklodowska was born on November 7, 1867, in Warsaw, Poland. Her early years were strongly influenced by her parents, who were both educators. She later joined with Faculty of Sciences at the Sorbonne. This made Marie the first woman to teach at the university level in France. • Marie Curie shared with her husband, Pierre Curie, the honors for discovering two radioactive elements, radium and polonium. The discovery of these elements laid the foundation for future discoveries in nuclear physics and chemistry.
I am now planning to organize・・・・・・・ “ What Einstein dreamed? ” in Aichi University Organized special class collaborating with lectures
３ Possible Roles of Women Scientists In Science Societies
I would like to comment on possible, important roles women researchers may take. Women usually experience more multi-style lives than men. Many of them spend less time in pure scientific work than men, but they make more effort to change their social and natural environments and are more concerned with family care and daily life than men. Such experiences of women may contribute to the creation of new areas in science. I believe that quality of science and the atmosphere of academic society will improve when men and women appreciate different experiences and perspectives, share them, and work cooperatively.
Note that ３ women scientists
Theo Colborn 1927: born 1947:Rutgers University 1978: graduate course 1985: PhD 1988- ＷＷＦ-US She is Director of the Wildlife and Contaminants Program, and Senior Program Scientist, at the World Wildlife Fund. Colborn was a grandmother with a background in pharmacy when she returned to school and got her Ph.D. at the age of fifty-eight. She is the co-author of Our Stolen Future (1996) and organizer of a groundbreaking 1991 meeting at the Wingspread conference center in Wisconsin that brought together scientists to discuss the evidence on endocrine disruption.
Another woman Alice Hamilton The founder of occupational medicine, first woman professor at Harvard Medical School and the first woman to receive the Lasker Award in public health 1869 - 1970
Characteristics of Women Women love human beings as well as science (although this is not yet proven!!) Future prospects Women experience more multi-style life. Women are more involved by Child care and Family care than men.
The IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics was held in Paris, France, from March 7 to March 9, 2002. The primary purpose of the International Conference on Women in Physics was to understand the severe under-representation of women worldwide and to develop strategies to increase their participation in physics. The conference will serve as an initial focal point for ongoing activities to implement these strategies. It is the first international conference to be held on this topic. • Dr. Judy Franzc/o American Physical SocietyOne Physics EllipseCollege Park, MD 20740 USAFax: 1 301 2090865Phone: 1 301 email@example.com
Ratio of marriage people Ratio of people having children Number of children Family Situation
Ratio of marriage-people in Academia (JPS data) Marriage is not a very serious barrier
Average number of children(Industry of JSAP data) Child Care Leave System
Experience of Chairing Conferences Experiences of executive positions of academic societies Research Activity • Publication of papers, etc. • Talks in conferences, etc.
Women in Physics We hope to change the world Atmosphere of academic society Without Nomiya Creation of new area involving life, peace ecology, etc., if women enjoy science. . Budget distribution may become more transparent with humanity if women join decision-making committees. Madame Currie, Raychel Carlson, Theo Colborn
Golden Age of women scientists Women can be more active after children care period From the talk at the IUPAP Conference “Women in Physics” March 2002 in Paris
Survey of QuestionnaireJOINT PROJECTSbut different questionsJPS (The Physical Society of Japan) JSAP(Japan Society of Applied Physics ) Encouraged by IUPAP activities Thanks to “Women in Physics”