Comments from feedforward sheet • The girl who is in DVD is Indian. Her family is very strict. Her parents emphasize on respect of family. They do not respect her feelings. This situation is near to Japan. She had no choice to “Erabu”(choose) her decision. She had to be harmony for family honour. This is “Awase” style. This theme(“Erabi” + “Awase” style) related to the different styles between western (Erabi) and estern(Awase). Western tend to address individualism and eastern tend to make a harmony with others (collectivism). TJ • The video showed the degree of interdependence of British (western) culture and Indian (eastern) culture. The westerners’ children are primarily self-respected because they can do anything they desire and parents do respect children. In contrast, Indian father did not let his girl disobey to what her father says and therefore she is not respected to do anything along her will and must obey what her parents say. KN
Like showing in the video, the Indian girl are not supposed to play football in the team. Her family forbid her to do so. This situation is apparently a story from a interdependent culture in which she is not just an individual, she is connected to her family and cultural group. She has to consider the feeling of her parents, not just her owns, and obey to her parents. WF • The video shows an example of how parents make decisions for heir children in eastern cultures rather than in western cultures. It also illustrates the hierarchical rather than individualistic relationships in the context of family. PK • The clip shows how the main character struggles with her family’s focus on interdependence and her own desire to be independent. Her family want her to focus on her studies but she wants to be a soccer player. EF
The most obvious connection to today’s theme was shown during the conversation between the Indian parents and the English man. The parents made a decision for their daughter and emphasized respect for elders, which are characteristics of eastern cultures. Another connection to today’s theme was the changing times. We discussed how Japanese language has been changing, and this is paralleled in the video by the difference between the daughter’s point of view and the parents’ point of view. Much like younger Japanese people, the girl in the movie is more independent than her parents of the previous generations. CP
Intercultural Transitions Part 1 May 19, 2009 Kiyoko Sueda Article: Martin, J. N. & Nakayama, T. K. pp. 264-277.
1. Types of migrant groups 1.1. Definition A migrant is an individual who leaves the primary cultural contexts where he/she was raised and moves to a new cultural context for an extended period.
1.2 Voluntary Migrants 1. Travelers 2. Sojourners (those who stay somewhere temporarily): -International students -corporate personnel -missionaries 3. Immigrants (who come to live permanently in a foreign country)
5 major countries for immigrants 1. USA 2. Canada 3. Australia 4. Israel 5. New Zealand
Japan’s mobility *No. of foreign people coming to Japan was ９,１５0,000(-5,８00) as of the end of 2008. *No. of Japanese going abroad was １0，５９９,000(-１,３１0,000) *留学生３０万人計画 Increasing the number of foreign students up to 300,000 by 2013
1.3. Involuntary immigrants • Short-term refugees • Long-term refugees because of war, famine and oppression. c.f. 1982-2006 Total number of refugees in Japan: 410 (4,882 applied) MOFAhttp://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/gaiko/nanmin/main3.html
2. Culture shock2.1 Definition • Culture shock is a relatively short-term feeling of disorientation, of discomfort due to the unfamiliarity of surroundings and the lack of familiar cues in the environment. (Text, p. 270). Oberg, K. (1960). “Culture shock: Adjustment to new cultural environments.” Practical Anthropology, 7, pp. 177-182.
2.2 Nature of culture shock • Most people experience culture shock during the period of transition to a new culture (e.g., country, region, organization, role, marriage ) • The more people have a direct contact, the more they are likely to experience culture shock. • Maintaining separateness insulates people from culture shock.
2.3 Aspects of culture shock • 1. Strain as a result of the effort required to make necessary psychological adaptation • 2. A sense of loss and feelings of deprivation in regard to friends, status, profession, and possessions • 3. Rejection by and/or rejection of members of the new culture
4. Confusion in role, role expectations, values, feelings, and self-identity • 5. Surprise and anxiety after becoming aware of cultural differences • 6. Feelings of helplessness as a result of not being able to cope with the new environment Furnham, A. (1988). The adjustment of sojourners. Y.Y. Kim, & W. B. Gudykunst (Eds.,) Cultural adaptation, pp. 42-61. Sage.
2.4 Major symptoms of culture shock • Excessively aware of cleanliness (e.g., washing hands more frequently than necessary, checking to see if water, food, plates, bed, etc are clean) • Avoiding talking with people • Not wanting to do anything
Refusing to learn the host country’s language • Being afraid of getting hurt • Wanting to go home badly 磯貝友子 Isogai, T. (1998) 「第7章：異文化との出会い：カルチャーショックと異文化適応」八代京子Yashiro, K.（編）『異文化トレーニング』pp. 241-282.
2.5 Ways to look at culture shock • 1. “Culture shock is a problem.” -It is like a disease. -The migrant can “recover” from the disease.
2. “Culture shock can be shifted to a learning process.” -Those who experience culture shock is sensitive to cultural differences. -We can learn from culture shock. 末田清子（2001).「留学体験の意味づけー大学生の留学前 及び帰国後の滞在国に対するイメージ分析を通してー」『異 文化コミュニケーション』4号,57-74. Sueda, K. (2001). [An analysis of students' images of their host countries: Application of the PAC method to Intercultural Training].Journal of Intercultural Communication No.4, pp.57-74, SIETAR, Japan
3. Migrant-Host Relationships3.1 Overview:4 modes of acculturations • 4 ways for migrants to relate to their new cultures: They can assimilate, remain separate, integrate, or become marginalized.
3.1 Overview: Diagram Berry, J. W., Kim U., & Boski, P. (1988), Psychological acculturation of immigrants. p. 66. Fig. 3.1 Is it valuable to maintain cultural identity? YES NO INTEGRATION ASSIMILATION Is it valuable to maintain relationships with other groups? YES NO SEPARATION MARGINALIZATION
3.2 Four modes of acculturations3.2.1 Assimilation • 1. An individual does not want to maintain his/her cultural identity but wants to maintain relationships with other groups in the new culture. • 2. A migrant is generally welcomed by the new host culture. • 3. An individual does not maintain his/her cultural heritage. • 4. It creates the “melting pot”model. • 5. The effects of society’s pressure on an individual/group to assimilate.
3.2.2 Two forms of Separation:1. Separation • 1. An individual wants to maintain his/her cultural identity but avoids contact with other groups in the new culture. • 2. They choose separation, and the dominant society respects their choice. (e.g., Amish in the USA, Brazilian-Japanese in Oizumi-cho, Japan)
2. Segregation • Separation is initiated and enforced by the dominant society. • Segregation can be seen in many aspects such as housing, facilities, transportation, etc. (e.g., Apartheid (till 1994) in South Africa, Some Ainu people in Japan)
FYI • The Ainu People • "Ainu" means "human." The Ainu people regard things useful to them or beyond their control as "kamuy"(gods). In daily life, they prayed to and performed various ceremonies for the gods. These gods include : "nature" gods, such as of fire, water, wind and thunder ; "animal" gods, such as of bears, foxes, spotted owls and gram-puses ; "plant" gods, such as of aconite, mush-room and mugwort ; "object" gods, such as of boats and pots ; and gods which protect houses, gods of mountains and gods of lakes. The word "Ainu" refers to the opposite of these gods.
History • About 300 B.C., Honshu (Japan's mainland) experienced the Yayoi Period. Between the Yayoi and Muromachi Periods, Hokkaido experienced periods of earthenware cultures, such as the Zoku-Jomon Period, the Satsumon Period, and the Okhotsk Culture. • The "Ainu Culture" extended from about 1400 to the early 1700 s. According to one theory, the Satsumon Culture developed into the Ainu Culture through the influence of the Okhotsk Culture. • However, this theory is not a proven one. In the mid-1400 s, the Japanese extended their influence over southern Hokkaido, primarily Esashi and Matsumae. Later, they came to oppress the Ainu. To resist the oppression by the Japanese, the Ainu waged the Battle of Kosyamain in 1457, the Battle of Syaksyain in 1669, and the Battle of Kunasiri-Menasi in 1789. The Ainu lost each time. After losing the Battle of Kunasiri-Menasi in particular, the Ainu fell completely under the control of the Japanese.
They remained oppressed and exploited by the Japanese until the Meiji era. In the Meiji era, under the government policy of assimilation, the Ainu were prohibited from observing their daily customs. Given the status of former aborigines, the Ainu were forced to abide by Japanese daily customs. In 1899, the Hokkaido Aborigine Protection Act was passed. The act primarily aimed to provide relief for the Ainu and help them become engaged in agriculture. However, the act designated the Ainu as "former aborigines" and clarified the distinction between the Japanese and the Ainu. • In the late Meiji era, with an increasing number of Japanese colonizing Hokkaido from Honshu, the oppression and exploitation of the Ainu was replaced by discrimination against them. Discrimination against the Ainu still remains today and has become a major social problem. http://www.ainu-museum.or.jp/english/eng01.html
3.2.3 Integration • An individual is interested in maintaining his/her original culture and language and in having interactions with other groups. • Integration depends on the openness and willingness of those in the dominant society to accept the cultures of others. • An individual tries to maintain his/her cultural heritage. • It creates the “Salad Bowl” model. Multiculturalism
3.2.4 Marginalization • An individual or group has little interest in maintaining cultural ties with either the dominant culture or the migrant culture. • An individual is not likely to be able to participate fully in its political and social life as a result of cultural differences. (e.g., some intercultural children in Japan, Japanese <children left behind in China> returnees from China)
3.2.5 Combined modes of relating • Immigrants and their families often combine these four different modes of relating to the host society. (e.g., economic assimilation, linguistic integration, and social separation).
Video Watching -Can you observe any symptons of “culture shock”? -Do you have any similar experiences?
A. Group presentations • 1. Based on the reading materials, select a topic and make a group presentation. You can make a critical analysis of what you have learned in class or from the reading materials, or you can relate the theories you have learned to your daily life and experiences. e.g. -What is KY(kuuki yomenai)? -Are Japanese really collecitivists? -A cultural minority in Japan. • 2. Make a group consisting of 5 or 6 persons, and the total time allowed for each group is 20 minutes. The presentation time cannot be changed based on the number of people in the group. • 3. The form of the presentation is flexible, but everyone in the group should contribute to the project.
4. For your presentation, you can use equipment, such as a PC (Windows XP), DVD, or VHS. Your group leader has to let Sueda know which equipment you would like to use. • 5. You can use Sueda’s PC (the one I have at the office is Windows XP) for powerpoint slides. You are welcome to use it, but you need to save your document on your own USB and format it for XP. • 6. Presentation will be made on the following dates: June 23, June 30, July 7 and July 14. • 7. As a member of the audience, you are expected to evaluate your classmates’ presentations. • 8. As a presenter, you are expected to evaluate your own performance.
B. Final paper • Based on your group presentation, you are expected to • submit a final pa per individually to Kyomuka (Building #8 on the 1st floor). The due date of the paper is from July 16th to 18th . (These dates are not certain) • 2. The content of the paper should include: (1) what you have learned academically from the project; and (2) how well your group collaborated, and reasons why your group collaborated well or not. • 3. The paper should be typed (double-spaced=1.5) and from 1 to 2 pages in length.
Presentation Schedule • June 23 • Group 1 Ayon, Marmo、東郷 今井 浅井 森崎 • Group 2 Dinoffria, Quintana、内山 宇野 今林 山田 • Group 3 Fowler, Araki、梶川 浦川 加藤綾子 山本 • Group 4 Paxton, 金、布田 加藤その花 加藤雄太 長澤 • June 30 • Group 5 Kogan, 喬 江川 門岡 金子 南竹 • Group 6 Tinkham, Crawley 河口 川西 黒石 森田 • Group 7 Barnard, 胡 清水 小菅 小西 • Group 8 Ganbold,Rubi 本山 太刀川 佐藤
July 7 • Group 9 Calzada, Suzuka 山口 田中 杉山 • Group 10 Ginn, Delaterre 湯浅 田村 積 • Group 11 Yates, Nomura 泉 冨岡 鶴巻 • Group 12 Li, 魏, Hayes 宮本 友野 中神 • July 14 • Group 13 Eysmont, Lam 塚田 沼田 楢崎 • Group 14 歐、盧 石崎 能勢 福岡 • Group 15 Gregory, 神野 伊藤 古川 福島 • Group 16 黄、寶納、井上 三矢 村上