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Ch 7 PowerPoint Presentation

Ch 7

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Ch 7

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  1. Ch 7 Abbasid Decline and Spread of Islam

  2. I. Excess and Decline • Abbasid caliphs lived extremely lavishly • Concubines, wives and courtiers • Succession was a problem • Al Mahdi’s son was poisoned 1 year after his death • Solved with Harunal-Rashid (786-809) • 1001 Arabian Nights • His death resulted in civil war • Issues with slave armies

  3. II. Breakdown and Decline • Women lost rights • Harem • Slaves who could only win freedom with sons • Protected by Eunuchs • Arabs and non-Arabs • Veil • Slave women did not have to wear a veil • Rich women • No careers • Poor Women • Clothing, silk and rug production

  4. II. Breakdown and Decline • Slave armies were used during civil wars • Extravagant building projects • High taxes • Irrigation fell apart • Shi’ites caused rebellions

  5. II. Breakdown and decline • Invaders • Buyids (945 AD) • Persian invaders • Captured Baghdad • Sultans (victorious) • Seljuk Turks (1055 AD) • 200 years • Sunnis who purged Shi’ites • Came to rule the Ottoman empire

  6. III. Crusades • Catholic invasions to free Jerusalem (Holy Land) from the Muslims • Encouraged by Byzantium • Pope Urban II • Series of 8 crusades • 1st most successful • 3rd- Muslims united under Saladin • Ended with King Richard the Lion Hearted and Saladin making peace • Most were failures • Helped revive classical culture lost to the west • Brought desire to trade with Middle East

  7. III. Crusades

  8. IV. Learning and Prosperity • Town life grew • Wealth in trade grew • Art flourished • Tapestry/Rugs • Mosque grew • Literature • Persian replaces Arabic • Illuminate text • Poetry • Shah-Nama (Book of Kings)- Firdwasi • History book اسلامي

  9. IV. Learning and Prosperity • Science and Math • Improved Greek Algebra and Geometry • Trigonometry • Sine, cosine and tangent • Objective experimentation • Al-Biruni: calculated specific mass of 18 minerals • Astronomical tables • Star maps • Medicine • Map Making

  10. V. End of Abbasid Caliphate • Was divided early on due to Succession • Mongols • Chinggis Khan (1220s) aka Ghengis Khan • Raided Eastern provinces • Hulegu • Chinggis’s grandson • Took Baghdad in 1258 (ended Abbasid rule) • Pushed west and was defeated by the Mamluks of Egypt • Cairo becomes Islam capital

  11. V. End of Abbasid Caliphate

  12. VI. Islam spreads to Asia • Main region of spread was India • Inevitable encounters • Encountered some problems • Did not spread easily and resulted in violence • Islam is open socially while Hinduism is not • Islam is strict religiously and Hinduism is flexible

  13. VI. Islam spreads to Asia • 1st invasion (711 AD) • Effects were not enduring • Result of trade and Indian attacks on Arab ships • General Muhammad ibnQasim • Umayyad • 17 years old • No real effect • Treated as Dhimili • Indian culture had more influence • Did not add much territory

  14. VI. Islam spreads to Asia • 2nd Invasion (962 AD) • Turkish Slave dynasty • Pushed to Afghanistan and into the Indus Valley • Mahmud of Ghazni pushed raiding and conquest • 3rd ruler of dynasty • Pushed deep into India • Pursuit of wealth • Muhammad of Ghur • Succeeded Mahmud and conquered central India • Qutb-ud-din Aibak • Slave lieutenant took over after Muhammad’s assassination

  15. VI. Islam spreads to Asia • Indian converts • Separated Arabs and Hindus • Muslims put themselves into the top of the caste system • Some gave themselves divine rule • Most Muslims assimilated themselves into Arab society

  16. VI. Islam spreads to Asia • Hindus couldn’t assimilate Islam • Used cults to make their religion more desirable • Bhaktic • Kabir and Mira Bai • Gurus and mystics • Islam tried to accommodate these differences • Conversion did not happen frequently

  17. VI. Islam spreads to Asia • Southeast Asia • Spread to Sumatra, and Strait of Malacca and Malaya • Spread through trade • Sufi Mystics spread Islam • Mixed mysticism and Islam • Allowed for pre-Islam belief • More flexible